(H.P. ECONOMIC SURVEY 2019-20)
CHAPTER 4: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGS)
(For better explanation, Chapter wise video lectures of this economic survey have been uploaded in the youtube channel of RANA ACADEMY SHIMLA )
In September 2000, leaders of 189 countries gathered at the United Nations headquarters and signed the historic Millennium Declaration, in which they committed to achieving a set of eight measurable goals by the target date of 2015.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were agreed by the countries in 2001 and expired in 2015.
Each goal had specific targets, and dates for achieving those targets. The 8 goals were measured by 21 targets.
All 191 United Nations member states, and at least 22 international organizations, committed to help achieve the following Millennium Development Goals by 2015:
- to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;
- to achieve universal primary education;
- to promote gender equality and empower women;
- to reduce child mortality;
- to improve maternal health;
- to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases;
- to ensure environmental sustainability; and
- to develop a global partnership for development.
The world has already realized the first MDG of halving the extreme poverty rate by 2015.
However, the achievements were uneven particularly in Africa, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing States, and some of the MDGs remain off-track, in particular those related to maternal, newborn and child health and to reproductive health. The MDGs were expired in 2015 and the discussion of a post-2015 agenda took place.
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
In September, 2015, the world community had agreed to design International Framework on new developments and a name was given Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), officially known as “transforming out world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”, are an inter-governmental set of 17 aspiration Goals with 169 targets and more than 300 indicators.
The SDGs are expanded version of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which were expired in 2015.
The SDGs have come into existence on 1st January, 2016 and will end by 31st December, 2030.
The agenda for Sustainable Development-2030, aims at ‘Leaving No One Behind’ in sharing the benefit of development.
The SDGs have been designed to integrate global ambitions on tackling poverty, reducing inequality, combating climate change and protecting ecosystem including forest and biodiversity.
The SDGs have been signed and adopted by the Government of India. For realization of 17 Goals and 169 Targets, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India, has developed 309 Indicators. These indicators are measurable and monitorable. NITI Aayog is the nodal agency for the implementation of SDGs in India. NITI Aayog has selected 62 priority indicators for SDG India Index and assessing the progress of all States in institutionalization of SDGs in their policy and planning. On the basis of this SDG Index, NITI Aayog has ranked Himachal Pradesh along with Kerala at No.1.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2019
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2020
|RANK 1ST : Denmark ( 85.2 score) Rank 2nd : Sweden ( 85.0 score)
Rank 115 : India ( 61.1 score)
|RANK 1ST : Sweden ( 84.72 score)
Rank 2nd : Denmark ( 84.56 score)
Rank 117 : India ( 61.92 score)
HP GOVT AND THE SDGs
The HP State Government is committed to implement the SDG framework in Himachal Pradesh. The State has taken several steps for integration of the SDGs into budgetary and planning process. State Government has been guiding the Budget speeches since 2017-18 by the SDGs mentioning that some of the SDG targets will be achieved by 2022. During the current financial year several new schemes were initiated to fill the existing gaps in achieving SDGs.
Planning Department is the nodal department in the State to facilitate implementation of the SDGs framework in Himachal Pradesh.
In Himachal Pradesh, social-economic and human development indicators are much better than many States in the country. Some of initiatives are summarized below:
1. Mapping of SDGs with targets and identification of Nodal departments for each goal
Working groups headed by the Administrative Secretary were constituted to prepare the vision document for the respective goal.
To facilitate the department, detailed Terms of Reference (ToRs) and a template has been provided to the Nodal Departments for preparation of vision documents.
2. Development of State Vision Document-2030
The Drishti Himachal Pradesh 2030 (State Vision Document 2030) has been prepared and launched. In this Vision Document, only 16 Goals have been taken and Goal No. 14 is left being related to Marine Life as Himachal Pradesh is land locked State.
The State Vision Document suggests that most targets will be achieved by 2022 and the remaining targets will be achieved before or by 2030.
3. Training need assessment and development of training course modules
Three workshops were held with the participation of Nodal Departments and the training Institutes, as an outcome of these workshops the training needs of various departments have been identified. To provide structured training and sensitization to various stakeholders, training course modules on SDGs have been developed by HIPA.
Training for two batches of Training of Trainers (ToTs) were conducted in August and September, 2018 with objective to prepare pool of trainers in the State and 24 officers from different departments have been trained as master trainers.
4. Capacity building and sensitization on SDGs
Government of Himachal Pradesh in collaboration with the National Foundation for India (NFI) has organized several training and capacity building programmes on SDGs.
Experts from UN were mobilized to provide technical support to the nodal departments for developing their vision document. The State Apex Training Institute (HIPA) has included sessions on sensitization of SDGs in its training calendar. More than ten sessions/batches have been conducted so far.
5. Popularization of SDGs
As awareness on SDGs is essential, The Government has taken several initiatives to propagate the SDGs. Video message of the Hon’ble Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh on SDGs was telecast on Doordarshan.
Repeated message of Hon’ble Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh on SDGs was published in the newspapers and 26 artists of folk media groups were orientated on SDGs. Two folk performances in each Development Block of the State were conducted in July, 2017 conveying importance and need to achieve the SDGs.
Following IEC material has been published;
- i) Pictorial booklet on SDGs (Hindi) containing schemes mapped with each SDG. ii) Colored pamphlets (Hindi) containing all the SDG in brief,
- Multicolor poster on 16 goals (Hindi) design is ready, printing is underway,
- Pictorial booklet on SDGs (English) containing schemes mapped with each SDG is being developed,
- Hindi translation of Drishti Himachal Pradesh-2030 (State Vision Document) is being done.
6. Monitoring of targets and indicators
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), GoI, has developed 300+ indicators to be monitored to assess the progress of the sustainable goals and targets. However, considering the State’s better socio-economic condition, many indicators may not be relevant for the State. Besides, in absence of availability of the required data, it may not possible for the State to monitor these many indicators. Therefore, the State Government has considered 138 indicators in consultation with the nodal departments. Therefore, the State Government has considered 138 indicators in consultation with the nodal departments.
The current level of achievement, efforts to achieve SDGs and timelines for achieving SDGs in respect of some indicators are as under:-
- Between 1993-94 and 2011, rural poverty in Himachal Pradesh declined from 36.8 percent to 8.5 percent a fourfold decline while marginal change was recorded in urban poverty during 2004 to 2011.
- Early land reforms have yielded positive results; almost 80 percent of rural households in the State possess some land, which is fairly better than the many States in country.
- In education, several vital indicators suggest that the State’s performance has been impressive. Gross Enrolment ratio was 98.80 percent for Primary, 103.09 percent for Upper Primary, 107.08 per cent for Secondary, and 95.53 percent for Hr. Secondary, which is much better than the national average. Similarly, the retention rate was 93.09 percent for Elementary and 90.78 percent for Secondary education, which is quite impressive (Source: Flash Statistics 2015-16).
- In 2011-12, about 63 percent of rural women in Himachal Pradesh reported themselves as being employed. This places Himachal Pradesh second in female labour force participation after Sikkim and significantly above the all India average of 27 percent.
- More than 83 percent people are seeking health services from the government sector.
- As per NFHS-4, in Himachal Pradesh under 5 years Mortality Rate is 38 and Infant Mortality Rate is 34, which is much lower in comparison to the National average. The State is committed to bring these down further.
- As per census 2011, Sex ratio of Himachal Pradesh is 972, (per 1000 male) which is better than the neighboring States.
- As per NFHS-4 data 2015-16, 94.9 percent households in Himachal Pradesh have access to improved source of drinking water which is comparatively better than the national average of 89.9 percent.
- In 2016, the State was declared the first Open Defecation Free (ODF) in the country. All the households have access to improved sanitation facilities in the State while the national average is 48.4 percent (NFHS-4)
- Immunization upto 9 months is 99.5 percent and Total Fertility Rate is 1.9 (NFHS-4) (Below replacement level).
- Energy efficient street lights are 100 percent and energy efficient domestic bulbs are 85 percent.
- Percentage of household having access to toilet facility and household electrified are 100 percent.
- Rate of total cognizable crime relating to human trafficking in the State is 1 percent and establishment of Anti Human Trafficking Unit (AHTU) in every district is 33 percent. Number of Police Personnel per lakh population are 278, which is higher than the national average of 180.59. xiv) Telephone per 100 populations is 150.44 and civil registration is 100 percent.
- Percentage of households with any usual member covered by a health insurance is 76 percent and proportion of population having bank accounts is 89.2 percent. xvi) Proportion of population (out of eligible population) receiving social protection benefits under maternity benefit and proportion of population (marginalized and vulnerable) with access to food grains at subsidized prices is 100 percent.
Efforts to achieve SDGs:
- Mapping of the 16 goals was done and accordingly, 11 working groups were constituted with one nodal department and other major stakeholder departments as its members for documentation of vision on SDGs-aligned with 15 year Vision, 7 year Strategy and 3 year Action Plan.
- The State has resolved that each Sustainable Development Goal will be monitored against two sets of indicators. The first set of indicators will be used to monitor the progress made on SDGs for the use of the State Government and the second set of indicators will be based on the indicators suggested by the MoSPI / NITI.
Timeline for achieving SDGs:
The Government of Himachal Pradesh seeks to achieve following SDGs by 2022, which are as under. The rest will be achieved by 2030:-
- To reduce the percentage of population living below poverty line from the existing level of 8.1 percent to 2 percent.
- To reduce infant mortality rate (IMR) from 35 to 20.
- 100 percent population will be covered under the Health Insurance Scheme by 2020 and the same will be sustained.
- To reduce the drop-out rate up to zero in primary and middle level schools.
- To increase the ratio of girls from 909 to 940 per 1,000 boys in the 0-6 years category.