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Current Affairs November 2022

Current Affairs November 2022


  • STATE’s News


SCO Heads of Government meeting

  • Recently, China hosted 21st meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Heads of Government
  • The SCO Heads of Government meet is held annually to focus on the trade and economic agenda of the organisation and approves the SCO’s annual budget.
  • India’s External Affairs Minister Jaishankar represented India in the meeting.
  • He spoke about the launch of the global Mission ‘LIFE’ (Lifestyle for Environment) and its relevance to ensuring food and energy security. He also reiterated that the Connectivity projects should respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Member States and respect international law. This was said in a reference to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).
    • Note : India opposed the BRI as it included the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, which connected Kashgar in China with the Gwadar port in Pakistan via Pakistan-occupied Kashmir.
  • India has taken over as Chairperson of the SCO for 2023, and will host leaders of all SCO countries at a summit in Delhi expected in mid-2023.
  • Note : the SCO summit 2022 was held recently in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation?

  • It is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation. It was created in 2001. The SCO Charter was signed in 2002, and entered into force in 2003. It’s a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation aiming to maintain peace, security and stability in the region. It is seen as a counterweight to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), It is a nine-member economic and security bloc and has emerged as one of the largest transregional international organisations.
  • Official Languages: Russian and Chinese.
  • Permanent Bodies: o SCO Secretariat in Beijing.
    • Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) in Tashkent.
  • Chairmanship: It is by rotation for a year by Member States.
  • India and Pakistan became members in 2017.
  • Current Members: Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India and Pakistan.
  • Iran is set to become a permanent member of the SCO in 2023.
  • Note : Belarus has also begun the membership process for SCO.
  • Evolution of SCO: Prior to the creation of SCO in 2001, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai Five (1996). Following the accession of Uzbekistan to the organisation in 2001, the Shanghai Five was renamed the SCO.

East Timor

  • The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has agreed in principle to admit Timor Leste (East Timor) as the group’s 11th member, more than a decade after the country requested membership.
  • About Timor Leste : The East Timorese voted for independence from a brutal occupation by neighboring Indonesia in a 1999 UN-supervised referendum, and the country was officially recognized by the United Nations in 2002, making it Asia’s youngest democracy.

India Abstains on Russia sponsored  Resolution at UNSC

  • Recently a motion was sponsored by Russia at the UNSC that sought to establish a commission to investigate claims by Moscow that the S. and Ukraine are carrying out “military biological activities” in laboratories in Ukraine in violation of the biological weapons convention.
  • The resolution failed to get adopted as only two Council members — Russia and China — voted in its favour. In contrast, the S., the U.K. and France voted against it.
  • The other Council members, including India, abstained. Biological Weapon Convention:
  • Formally known as “The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction”, the Convention was negotiated by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It entered into force on 26th March 1975.
  • It effectively prohibits the development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological and toxin weapons.
  • The Convention has an almost universal membership with 184 States Parties and four Signatory States.
  • India is a signatory of the convention.

India’s Stand on Russia’s War with Ukraine & way ahead

  • Despite its discomfort with Moscow’s war, New Delhi has adopted neutrality toward Russia.
  • It has abstained from successive votes in the UN Security Council, General Assembly, and Human Rights Council that condemned Russian aggression in Ukraine and thus far has refused to openly call out Russia as the instigator of the crisis.
  • India has been under immense indirect pressure from Western nations that have openly condemned Russia’s military aggression against Ukraine.
  • India has been pressing for the resolution of the crisis through diplomacy and dialogue.

Chemical Weapons Convention and Biological Weapons Convention In News :

  • In Last few months, both U.S. and Russia have made allegation on each other regarding the preparation of chemical or biological weapon attack in Ukraine.
    • The US said that Russia could be planning a chemical or biological weapon attack in Ukraine.
    • Russia claimed that the US had chemical and biological weapons labs in Ukraine, which was denied by the US.

Chemical Weapons Convention, 1997

  • It is an arms control treaty that allows for the stringent verification of compliance by State Parties.
  • It was adopted by the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva on 3rd September 1992 after 12 years of negotiations.
  • It opened for signature in Paris on 13th January 1993 and entered into force on 29th April 1997.
  • It is administered by the OPCW and prohibits the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, retention, transfer or use of CWs by state parties.
  • Members: The convention is open to all nations and currently has 193 states-parties.
  • India signed the treaty in 1993.
  • Israel has signed but has yet to ratify the convention.
  • Three states have neither signed nor ratified the convention are Egypt, North Korea and South Sudan. ▪ Note : Four UN states are not party: Egypt, Israel, North Korea and South Sudan.

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

  • It is an international organization established by the CWC, 1997.
  • Aim: It aims to implement and enforce the terms of the CWC.( In other words , it is an implementing wing of CWC) ▪ Functions
  • Destroy all of the existing CWs under international verification.
  • Monitor the chemical industry to prevent CWs from re-emerging.
  • Provide assistance and protection to States Parties against chemical threats.
  • Foster international cooperation to strengthen the implementation of the CWC and promote the peaceful use of chemicals.
  • Powers
  • It is authorised to perform inspections to verify that signatory states are complying with the convention, including a commitment to grant inspectors full access to CWs sites.
  • It also performs testing of sites and victims of suspected CWs attacks.
  • Under its 2001 Relationship Agreement with the UN, it reports on its inspections and other activities to the UN through the office of the Secretary-General.
  • Note : OPCW is not a UN organization.
  • Members: It has 193 members including India.
  • Headquarters: The Hague, the Netherlands.
  • It was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2013.

Steps taken by India against Chemical Weapons:

  • India was the First State Party of the CWC to secure the distinction of chemical weapon-free state Party by destroying all its stockpile of its chemical weapons amongst all State Parties of the Convention. ▪ India enacted the Chemical Weapons Convention Act, 2000 to implement the CWC.
  • Under the act, National Authority Chemical Weapons Convention (NACWC) has been established for implementing the provisions of the Convention. NACWC is an office in the Cabinet Secretariat, Government of India.
  • NACWC also acts as the national focal point for effective liaison with the OPCW and other State Parties on matters relating to the CWC.

Biological Weapons Convention

  • The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) effectively prohibits the development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological and toxin weapons.
  • The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) opened for signature in 1972 and entered into force in 1975.
  • It was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning an entire category of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
  • Obligations: The treaty bans the development or acquire or transfer of a) biological agents or toxins that have no justification for peaceful uses and b) weapons or equipment designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes.
  • Members:It currently has 183 states.India signed the convention in 1973.

What are Biological weapons:

  • These are microorganisms like virus, bacteria, fungi or other toxins that are produced and released deliberately to cause disease and death in humans, animals or plants.

Earthquake in Nepal

  • Recently, Powerful tremors were felt in India after an earthquake of magnitude 6.6 struck Nepal, which killed a few people and destroyed multiple houses.
  • What Caused these Tremors?
  • According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) the tremors are attributed to the continental collisions of India and Eurasia Plates, which is the dominating force for the Seismicity in the Himalayas.
  • These plates are converging at a relative rate of 40-50 millimeters per year.
  • Northward under thrusting of India beneath Eurasia generates numerous earthquakes and consequently makes this area one of the most seismically hazardous regions on Earth.
  • The Himalayas and their vicinity have witnessed some of the most lethal earthquakes such as one of magnitude 8.1 Bihar in 1934, the 1905 magnitude 7.5 quake in Kangra and the 2005 magnitude 7.6 quake in Kashmir.

HRC Universal Periodic Review (UPR)

  • Recently, the Human Rights Council (HRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) session was held in Geneva, where India’s human rights record was examined by the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) Working Group.
  • About UPR: The UPR is a unique process which involves a periodic review of the human rights records of all 193 UN Member States. Since its first meeting was held in April 2008, all 193 UN member States have been reviewed thrice within the first, second and third UPR cycles.
  • The ultimate aim of this mechanism is to improve the human rights situation in all countries and address human rights violations wherever they occur. Currently, no other universal mechanism of this kind exists.
  • UPR for India: The three country representatives serving as rapporteurs (“troika”) for the review of India are: Sudan, Nepal and the Netherlands. This review marks the beginning of the UPR fourth cycle. India’s first, second and third UPR reviews took place in April 2008, May 2012 and May 2017, respectively.

16th ASCODD  : Kolkata

  • Recently, the 16th Asian Conference on Diarrhoeal Disease and Nutrition (ASCODD) was held at Kolkata.
  • Theme: “Prevention and control of cholera, typhoid and other enteric diseases in low and middle-income countries through community participation: beyond the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic”. Focus Areas:
  • Epidemiology of cholera and typhoid
  • Roadmap to end Cholera by 2030, Cholera vaccine development and rapid diagnostics,
  • Diarrhea: Gastrointestinal infection leading to Loose, watery and possibly more-frequent bowel movements. It is caused by a Variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms.

19th ASEAN-India Summit

  • The 19th ASEAN-India Summit was held recently in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. India was represented by Vice President Jagdeep Dhankhar.
  • ASEAN-India Summits are held annually. It provides opportunity for India and ASEAN to engage at the highest level.

India-ASEAN Trade Relation

  • In general, ASEAN is India’s 4th largest trading partner and India is ASEAN’s 7th largest trading partner accounting for 10.2% of India’s total trade.
  • India’s total trade with ASEAN from April 2021 to March 2022 was $78.90 billion. Balance of trade is highly favourable to ASEAN.
  • On the other hand, ASEAN became China’s largest trading partner in 2020 and remains so.
  • ASEAN’s total trade with China in for the period January to April 2022 amounted to $274.50 billion.
  • ASEAN and India have set a trade target of 200 billion USD by 2022.

2021 ASEAN – India Summit

  • PM Modi attended the 18th ASEAN-India Summit held virtually in October 2021. This year’s summit is attended by the Vice President of India.
  • The year 2022 marks 30 years of ASEAN-India relations and it has been designated as ASEAN-India Friendship Year by the leaders in October 2021.

17th G20 Summit- Bali, Indonesia

  • The 17th annual summit of G20 countries is being organized at Bali, Indonesia.
  • Theme : ‘Recover Together, Recover Stronger’.
  • About 2023 (18th G20 Summit) o At the end of the meeting, India, represented by PM Narendra Modi, assumed charge of the G20 presidency as the 18th summit will be held in India (New Delhi) in September 2023.

o The theme of 18th / India’s G20 Presidency – “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” or “One Earth. One Family. One Future” – is drawn from the ancient Sanskrit text of the Maha Upanishad.

2023, India,  G20 Logo: 

  • G20 Logo unveiled by Prime Minister Modi bears a lotus and a message of ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam– One Earth, One Family, One Future’- it reflects our idea of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam (the whole earth is a family), because of which the country has also believed in global harmony.
  • The Lotus flower in the logo symbolizes India’s Puranic Heritage, Aastha (belief), and Boddhikta (intellectualism).
2023, India,  G20 Logo
  • About G20 : It is an intergovernmental forum made up of 19 countries as well as the European Union (EU) that aims to address significant global economic challenges such as international financial stability, climate change mitigation and sustainable development. Because the group has no permanent staff/secretariat, each year in December, a G20 country from a rotating region assumes the Presidency, which is in charge of organising the following summit.

Global Offshore Wind Alliance (GOWA)

  • Recently, nine new countries sign up for Global Offshore Wind Alliance at COP27.
  • Nine new countries: Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK, and the US.
  • Australia announces to sign up with global offshore wind alliance.
  • About GOWA: It was established to ramp up of offshore wind in order to tackle the climate and energy security crises. It was set up by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Denmark and the Global Wind Energy Council.

Third ‘No Money for Terror'(NMFT) Ministerial Conference on Counter-Terrorism Financing

  • The third ‘No Money for Terror'(NMFT) Ministerial Conference on Counter-Terrorism Financing was held in New Delhi, India. It was attended by delegates from 72 countries and 15 international organisations.
  • The “No Money for Terror” conference was started in 2018, as an initiative of the French government, to specifically focus on cooperation between countries to choke terror funding.
  • Aim: To provide a unique platform for participating nations and organisations to deliberate on the effectiveness of the current international regime on Counterterrorism Financing and the steps required to address emerging challenges.
  • In 2019, the conference was held in Australia.
  • It was to be held in India in 2020 but was postponed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. What are the key highlights from India’s address to the third NMFT Conference?
  • On Afghanistan: India has urged the international community to take cognisance of threats emerging from regime change in Afghanistan, as the last one had led to the 9/11 attacks.
  • On Terrorism: India stressed that the international community should never ignore terrorists’ safe havens or their resources. It is important to expose the double-speak of such elements who sponsor and support them.
  • India has called for a need of international watchdog on terror financing and money laundering to continuously monitor the tendencies of some countries to sponsor terrorism.
  • On modes of Terrorism financing: Terrorists and terrorist groups understand the nuances of modern weapons and information technology such as the Dark Net and Cryptocurrency very well.
  • This transformation of terrorism from dynamite to metaverse and AK-47 to virtual assets is definitely a matter of concern for the countries.
  • Hence, each country can and must act against the part of the chain within reach.
  • Countries supporting Terrorism: Certain countries support terrorism as part of their foreign policy. They offer political, ideological and financial support to them.
  • There must be a cost imposed upon countries that support terrorism. Organisations and individuals that try to create sympathy for terrorists must also be isolated.

$20 billion package to Indonesia

▪ At the G-20 summit in Bali, Rich nations led by the US, Japan and Canada have pledged to give Indonesia a $20 billion package to help the coal-dependent country shift to renewable energy and reach carbon neutrality by 2050.

9th ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting Plus

  • Recently, the Defence Minister of India (Rajnath Singh) participated in the 9th ASEAN Defence Ministers Meeting (ADMM) Plus in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

Key Highlights of the address by India

  • On Terrorism: India called for urgent and resolute global efforts to counter transnational and cross-border terrorism, terming it as the gravest threat to regional and global security.
  • Other Security Concerns: India brought to the forum’s attention other security concerns arising out of the global Covid19 pandemic, such as Energy and Food Security .
  • On Maritime Security: India advocates a free, open and inclusive Indo-Pacific region and calls for peaceful resolution of disputes while respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations.
  • It was also stated that the ongoing ASEAN-China negotiations on the Code of Conduct in the South China Sea should be fully consistent with international law, in particular United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and should not prejudice the legitimate rights and interests of nations that are not party to these discussions.

ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting (ADMM)

  • It is the highest defence consultative and cooperative mechanism in ASEAN. It was established in 2006 and includes the 10 members of ASEAN. It aims to promote mutual trust and confidence through greater understanding of defence and security challenges as well as enhancement of transparency and openness.


  • The ADMM-Plus is a platform for ASEAN and its eight Dialogue Partners.
  • Dialogue Partners are – Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation and United States.
  • The aim of ADMM-Plus is to strengthen security and defence cooperation for peace, stability, and development in the region.
  • It currently focuses on seven areas of practical cooperation, namely: Maritime security, Counter-terrorism, Humanitarian assistance and disaster management, Peacekeeping operations, Military medicine, Humanitarian mine action, and Cyber security.
  • The Inaugural ADMM-Plus was convened in Ha Noi, Vietnam, in October 2010.

Nuclear-powered icebreakers

  • The Russian President unveiled two nuclear-powered icebreakers (Yakutia and Rossiya) that will ensure year-round navigation in the Western Arctic.
  • Two other icebreakers in the same series, the Arktika and the Sibir, are already in service. Another icebreaker Chukotka, is scheduled for 2026.
  • Significance: a) According to Russia such icebreakers were of strategic importance for the country. b) They are needed for the study and development of the Arctic, and c) They will help in ensuring safe, sustainable navigation in the Arctic region.
  • These are part of Russia’s large-scale, systematic work to re-equip and replenish the domestic icebreaker fleet, to strengthen Russia’s status as a great Arctic power.
  • Cut Down Time to Reach Asia: The development of this most important transport corridor will allow Russia to more fully unlock its export potential and establish efficient logistics routes, including to South East Asia. For Russia, the opening of the Northern Sea Route (through Bering strait) will cut down time to reach Asia by up to two weeks compared to the current route via the Suez Canal Strategic significance of Arctic
  • The Arctic is taking on greater strategic significance due to climate change, as a shrinking ice cap opens up new sea lanes.
  • There has been a race among Arctic states and near-arctic states to augment their capabilities in a bid to be ready to capitalize on the melting Arctic.
  • , NATO has been conducting regular exercises in the region. China, which calls itself near-Arctic state, has also announced ambitious plan for polar silk route to connect to Europe.
  • Unlike Antarctica, the Arctic is not a global common.
  • Vast oil and gas resources lie in Russia’s Arctic regions, including a liquefied natural gas plant on the Yamal Peninsula.
  • As the earth further heats up, which is more profound at the poles, the race for the Arctic is set to accelerate. This makes the Arctic the next geopolitical hotspot. India’s involvement in Arctic
  • India’s engagement with the Arctic dates back to 1920 with the signing of the Svalbard Treaty in Paris.
  • India is one of the very few countries to set up a permanent station in the Arctic for the purposes of scientific research.
  • It launched its first scientific expedition to Arctic in the first week of August, 2007.
  • Himadri research station, located in Ny Alesund, Svalbard in Norway, was started in July 2008.

India is an observer in the Arctic Council

  • India is Observer to the Arctic Council since 2013. Its membership as an observer was renewed in 2019 for another five years.
  • The Council is the leading intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation on common Arctic
  • Established by the eight Arctic States — the countries whose territories fall in the Arctic region — through the Ottawa Declaration of 1996.
  • Member Nations of the Arctic Council – Canada, Kingdom of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and United States.

Indo-Pacific Regional Dialogue (IPRD)

  • Recently, the fourth edition of Indo Pacific Regional Dialogue concluded in Delhi.
  • IPRD is an apex-level international annual conference of the Indian Navy.
  • Organized by: National Maritime Foundation(NMF). NMF is a maritime think-tank established in 2005.
  • Purpose: It is an annual international conference that seeks to foster an exchange of ideas and promote deliberations on maritime issues relevant to the Indo-Pacific.
  • Theme of 2022: ‘Operationalising the Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative (IPOI)
  • Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative(IPOI) : The Indo-Pacific Oceans Initiative(IPOI) was articulated by the Indian Prime Minister at the 14th East Asia Summit (EAS) in 2019. It is a comprehensive and inclusive construct for regional cooperation that is focused on seven interconnected spokes or pillars.


 Yotta D1 : North India’s first hyper-scale data centre

  • Uttar Pradesh CM Yogi Adityanath has inaugurated North India’s first hyper-scale data centre Yotta D1.
  • Yotta D1, built at a cost of Rs 5,000 crore, is the country’s biggest and UP’s first data centre.
  • It is spread over an area of 3 lakh square feet at the upcoming Data Centre Park in Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh.
  • Note : The first Data Centre was launched in Hyderabad in 2008. Significance
  • The data centre will increase the data storage capacity of the country, which until now stood at two percent only despite the fact that 1.5 billion mobile phones and 650 million internet users in the world are from India using 20 per cent of data. Yet for storage of data, we had to look for centres abroad.
  • Yotta D-1 will be the first pillar of North India’s 5G revolution.
  • The presence of a data park would allow big companies like Google and Twitter to have a data centre for hosting, processing and storing data.
  • Present Scenario : Currently, there are about 138 data centres (DCs) across India with at least 57% of the current IT capacity being in Mumbai & Chennai. The primary colocation data centre area in India is Mumbai with its location facing the west coast making it well connected to the Middle East and Europe due to multiple submarine cables landing there.

Bridge collapsed over the river Machchu

  • Recently, a suspension bridge (Jhulta Pul ) collapsed over the river Machchu, in Gujarat’s Morbi district, which killed almost 135 people.
  • The suspension bridge was built by the ruler of the princely state of Morbi, Sir Waghji Thakor, in 1877. It was made to reflect the ‘progressive and scientific nature of the rulers of Morbi’. It was inaugurated by the then-Bombay governor, Richard Temple, in 1879.
  • This 150-year-old bridge is a major tourist attraction in the district. It is seen as an engineering marvel.

Why did the bridge collapse?

  • The bridge is capable of supporting only around 150 people. However, around 500 people, including women and children, were on the bridge when it collapsed. Several of them were performing Chhath puja rituals.
  • The bridge, which was closed down for renovation for 2 years, was reopened for public on October 26 (Gujarati New Year) without undertaking safety tests and receiving fitness certificates from civic authorities.
  • Note : Machchhu river originates from Madla hills in the Surendranagar district of Gujarat and ends 141.75 km downstream in the Rann of Kutch.
  • Note : Morbi District is famous for its ceramic Around 70% of India’s ceramics are produced in Morbi, and ceramic tiles manufactured here are exported to countries in the Middle East, East Asia, and Africa.
  • Note : World’s longest suspension bridge is Akashi Kaikyo Bridge (Japan) – 1,991m.

Issue of Governance

  • The incident has led the arrest of the people involved in maintaining the bridge and controlling the crowd. However, the Compensation and commission of inquiry is not enough. There is a need for good governance on part of the state government. Accountability needs to be fixed for the loss of people’s lives. We need to take inspiration from leaders like Lal Bahadur Shastri who resigned because of a train accident.
  • Urban institutions that oversee governance are in poor state. The 74th constitutional amendment was enacted three decades ago. But state governments are reluctant to give control over infrastructure to these bodies. It leads to multiple chains of command, lack of accountability and corruption. Municipal revenue is not proportional to the size of urban economies. Municipal revenue remained stuck at 1% of GDP between 2007-08 and 2017-18. Municipal revenues in South Africa and Brazil are around 6% and 7% respectively.
  • Under the constitutional framework, the state government should protect the life of every citizen. It is the duty of the state government to prevent incidents like Morbi. Governance is an important element in the constitutional framework. Without accountability, governance is merely a paper exercise. Bridges and public ways are state property. State must keep them in perfect condition. There were more people than capacity on the bridge. The administration did not provide enough manpower to prevent the incident.

Problems with such disaster in India?

  • There is serious issue of proper governance and accountability in India. The authorities in India take actions after the incident have caused and people responsible for such incidents are not even punished. For example, the death of businessman Cyrus Mistry raised the issue of rear seat belts but the faulty highway design which was mostly the cause of accident did not led authorities to act against the main culprit.

What can be the course of action?

  • India requires some efforts to improve its current inability in ensuring proper accountability.
  • Some jurists have called for “accountability jurisprudence” so that those responsible (the state, followed by private contractors) are pushed to enforce basic safety norms.
  • Further, there is need to spread awareness regarding the responsibility a citizen has because it is not only the state that lacks, sometimes the irresponsible citizens can also endanger the life of others e.g. the bridge is capable of supporting only around 150 people but there were around 500 people over it which led to the incident.

International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI)

  • The government has amended the prevention of tampering of the Mobile Device Equipment Identification Number, Rules, 2017, in which it is making it mandatory for mobile manufacturers to register International Mobile Equipment Identity number (IMEI) for every handset made in India with the government.
  • Importers, too, will have to register with the government the IMEI number of each phone before importing it.
  • Reasons : The new rules are to curb the rising cases of cloning and theft of mobile phones.
  • About International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) o It is a unique number that is used to identify a device on a mobile network. It has 15 digits and is like a phone’s unique identity.
    • The number is used to verify the identity of a device when a user uses the Internet or places a call through it.

Phones with a dual-SIM option have two IMEI numbers, one for each SIM.

  • Benefits : It helps in identifying the manufacturer of the phone and finding out if it was ever stolen. A stolen or lost device can be tracked using this number even if the SIM card has been removed. These numbers can also help in blacklisting devices, which will stop them from functioning.
  • Cell phones with dual SIM cards have two IMEI numbers, one for each SIM.

India’s First Floating Financial Literacy Camp : Dal Lake

  • India Post Payments Bank (IPPB) has conducted India’s First Floating Financial Literacy Camp with an initiative

called ‘Niveshak Didi’. About Niveshak Didi

  • Launched by: India Post Payments Bank(IPPB) in collaboration with Investor Education and Protection Fund Authority(IEPFA) under the aegis of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs(MCA).
  • Aim: To promote Financial Literacy “By the women, for the women” concept.
  • The initiative is based on the ideology of women for women as rural area women feel more comfortable to share their queries with a female itself.
  • As part of the initiative, IPPB conducted India’s First Floating Financial Literacy Camp among the local residents around the world-famous Dal Lake of Srinagar, J&K.

Child Welfare Police Officers (CWPO)

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs has recently asked the States/Union Territories to appoint a Child Welfare Police Officer (CWPO) in every police station to exclusively deal with children, either as victims or perpetrators.
  • According to the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, there should be at least one officer, not below the rank of an Assistant Sub-Inspector, as CWPO in every station.
  • National Commission for Protection of Child Rights had requested that a Special Juvenile Police Unit in each district and city, which is headed by an officer not below the rank of a Deputy Superintendent of Police, be established.
  • The unit would comprise CWPOs and two social workers having experience of working in the field of child welfare, of whom one shall be a woman, to co-ordinate all functions of police in relation to children.
  • The contact particulars of the CWPOs should be displayed in all police stations for the public to contact.

Status of Crimes Against Children in India?

  • According to the data published by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB):
  • The total number of crimes against children increased from 1,28,531 in 2020 to 1,49,404 in 2021.
  • While Madhya Pradesh topped the country with 19,173 cases, Uttar Pradesh stood second with 16,838 cases.
  • A total of 1,402 children were murdered across the country.
  • As many as 1,15,414 cases of kidnapping and abduction involving 1,18,549 children were reported in 2021.
  • Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh topped the list in these cases.

‘Eat Right Station’ Certification

  • Recently, Bhopal Railway Station has been awarded a 4- star ‘Eat Right Station’ certification for providing highquality, nutritious food to passengers. The 4-star rating indicates full compliance by the station to ensure safe and hygienic food is available to passengers.
  • About ‘Eat Right Station’ Certification : The ‘Eat Right Station’ certification is awarded by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to railway stations that set benchmarks in providing safe and wholesome food to passengers. The station is awarded a certificate upon a conclusion of an FSSAI-empanelled third-party audit agency with ratings from 1 to 5. The certification is part of the ‘Eat Right India’ movement.
  • Other Railway Stations with this Certification: Anand Vihar Terminal Railway Station; (Delhi), Chhatrapati Shivajim Terminus; (Mumbai), Mumbai Central Railway Station; (Mumbai), Vadodara Railway Station, Chandigarh Railway Station.
  • Eat Right Movement : It is an initiative of FSSAI to transform the country’s food system in order to ensure safe, healthy and sustainable food for all Indians. Its tagline is ‘Sahi Bhojan, Behtar Jeevan’. It is aligned to the National Health Policy 2017 with its focus on preventive and promotive healthcare and flagship programmes like Ayushman Bharat, POSHAN Abhiyaan, Anaemia Mukt Bharat and Swachh Bharat Mission.

Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS)

  • EMRS is a scheme for making model residential schools for STs across India. It started in the year 1997-98.
  • Its nodal ministry is Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
  • The aim of the scheme to build schools at par with the Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and Kendriya Vidyalayas with focus on special state-of-the-art facilities for preserving local art and culture besides providing training in sports and skill development.
  • The EMR School follows the CBSE curriculum.
  • One EMRS will be set-up per sub-district that has at least a 20,000-odd Scheduled Tribe (ST) population, which must be 50% of the total population in that area.
  • The minimum land requirement for setting up an EMRS was reduced from 20 acres to 15 acres.
  • In News : The government is pushing to set up 740 Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRS) for Scheduled Tribe (ST) students.

Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan

  • The Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan (Accessible India Campaign) is going to complete 7 years in December 2022.
  • The aim of the Campaign is to make a barrier-free and conducive environment for Divyangjans (Persons with Disabilities – PwDs) all over the country.
  • Accessible India Campaign (AIC) : It was launched by the Prime Minister of India on International Day of Persons with Disabilities on 3rd December 2015.
  • Implementing Agency: AIC is the nationwide flagship campaign of the Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DEPwD), Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.

Aadhar card to Prisoners

  • Recently, as a special measure to enroll prison inmates across the country, the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) has agreed to accept the Prisoner Induction Document (PID) as a valid document for enrolment or update of Aadhaar.
  • Though the campaign to extend Aadhaar facility to prisoners was launched in 2017, the process did not take off on expected lines since enrolment to the scheme required valid supporting documents prescribed by the UIDAI.

“National Suicide Prevention Strategy”

  • Recently, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India has announced the “National Suicide Prevention Strategy”. It is the first of its kind in the country, with time-bound action plans and multi-sectoral collaborations to achieve reduction in suicide mortality by 10% by 2030. The strategy is in line with the World Health

Organisation’s South East-Asia Region Strategy for suicide prevention.

What is National Suicide Prevention Strategy?

  • The strategy broadly seeks to establish effective surveillance mechanisms for suicide within the next three years. It seeks to establish psychiatric outpatient departments that will provide suicide prevention services through the District Mental Health Programme in all districts within the next five years.
  • It also aims to integrate a mental well-being curriculum in all educational institutions within the next eight years. It envisages developing guidelines for responsible media reporting of suicides, and restricting access to means of suicide.
  • Statstics : In India, more than one lakh lives are lost every year to suicide, and it is the top killer in the 15-29 years category. From 2019-22, the suicide rate has increased from 10.2 to 11.3 per 1,00,000 population.


  • The Ministry of Power has announced a Scheme for Procurement of Aggregate Power of 4500 MW on a competitive basis for five years on Finance, Own and Operate(FOO) basis under SHAKTI Policy.
  • This scheme is expected to help the states that are facing power shortage and also help generation plants to increase their capacities.
  • SHAKTI Scheme: SHAKTI, or Scheme for Harnessing and Allocating Koyala Transparently in India, was launched in 2018. It aims to provide coal to stressed power units which lack coal supply.

PM Poshan Scheme (Mid-Day Meal Scheme)

  • Recently, the Ministry of Finance has approved a hike of 9.6 % cooking cost per child under the Mid-Day Meal Scheme. Since the last hike in early 2020, the cooking cost per child has been Rs 4.97 per child per day in primary classes (class I-V), and Rs 7.45 (class VI-VIII) in upper primary classes. After the hikes come into effect, the allocation at the primary level and upper primary levels will be Rs 5.45 and Rs 8.17, respectively.

POLITY (Articles or Sections in News)

Increasing use of DNA testing

  • Recently, the Supreme Court has voiced concerns over the increasing use of DNA testing to prove a case.
  • The demand for DNA tests are increasing by around 20% each year.
  • Court’s Stand : Courts are reluctant to use the DNA test technique because there are serious questions raised regarding the right of privacy which comes under Article 21 of the Constitution and the right against self-incrimination which comes under Article 20(3) of the Constitution.
  • Legislation on DNA testing: There is no legislation present in India which can provide specific guidelines to the investigating agencies or the court for dealing with DNA testing.
  • The Supreme Court has recently held in a case concerning a woman protecting her identity that compelling an unwilling person to undergo a DNA test would be a violation of his/her personal liberty and right to privacy.
  • In Bhabani Prasad Jena, 2010; Supreme Court held that judges cannot order genetic tests as a “roving enquiry” (roving inquiry refers to asking questions which are not at all connected with the subject matter)
  • In the Banarsi Dass case, 2005, it held that DNA must balance the interests of the parties. DNA tests should also not be ordered if there was other material evidence at hand to prove the case.
  • In its Ashok Kumar judgment 2021, the court said judges, should examine “proportionality of the legitimate aims”, before ordering a genetic test. DNA testing
  • DNA is a very powerful tool for investigation because no two people can have the same DNA except in the case of identical twins. DNA/Genetic tests are performed on a sample of blood, hair, skin, amniotic fluid (the fluid that surrounds a fetus during pregnancy), or other tissue.
  • Use of DNA testing:
    • Crime scenes: DNA tests are used in the criminal investigation by the police where they find the suspect by matching the DNA samples of the crime scene with the suspected person’s DNA.
    • Finding inheritance: DNA test is the only tool that can deliver justice in cases of abandonment of mothers and children.
  • It is also a very powerful tool in civil cases where the court has to decide the matter relating to the maintenance and find the parents of the child.

Anti-superstition laws in India

  • Recently, two women in Kerala’s Pathanamthitta district were found killed as a part of a human sacrifice Subsequently, the Kerela government has stressed the need for a new legislation to curb such superstitious practices and urged strict implementation of the existing laws in this regard.


  • As per the 2021 report of the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), six deaths were linked to human sacrifices, while witchcraft was the motive for 68 killings.
  • The maximum number of witchcraft cases were reported from Chhattisgarh (20), followed by Madhya Pradesh (18) and Telangana (11). Kerala saw two cases of human sacrifice.
  • Note: In 2020, India saw 88 deaths due to witchcraft and 11 died as part of ‘human sacrifices’.

Legislative measures

  • While presently there exists no nationwide legislation to deal with superstitious practices, black magic, or human sacrifice in particular, certain sections of the Indian Penal Code enlist penalties applicable for such incidents.
    • Section 302 (punishment for murder) of IPC takes cognisance of human sacrifice, but only after the murder is committed.
    • Likewise, Section 295A (Deliberate and malicious acts, intended to outrage religious feelings of any class by insulting its religion or religious beliefs) works to discourage such practices.
    • Furthermore, Article 51A (h) of the Indian Constitution makes it a fundamental duty for Indian citizens to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
    • Other provisions under the Drugs and Magic Remedies Act, 1954 also aim to tackle the debilitating impact of various superstitious activities prevalent in India.
    • In 2016, MP Raghav Lakhanpal introduced the Prevention of Witch-Hunting Bill in the Lok Sabha, but it

wasn’t passed.  State Laws

  • In the absence of nationwide legislation, a few States have enacted laws to counter witchcraft and protect women from deadly ‘witch-hunting’. Bihar was the first State to enact a law to prevent witchcraft, identification of a woman as a witch and eliminate torture, humiliation and killing of women. Similarly 7 other states have enacted such acts.

Need for a country-wide Anti-superstition and Black Magic Act:

  • Only eight states in India have witch-hunting legislations so far. These include Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Rajasthan, Assam, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
  • Allowing the unhindered continuance of such practices violates an individual’s fundamental right to equality and right to life under Article 14 and Article 21 of the Constitution respectively.
  • Such acts also violate several provisions of various International legislations to which India is a signatory, such as the ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948’, ‘International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966’, and ‘Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979’.

Prohibition on  ‘two-finger’ test :  

  • The Supreme Court has declared that any person conducting the invasive ‘two-finger’ or ‘three-finger’ vaginal test on rape or sexual assault survivors will be found guilty of misconduct.

Two-finger test : The two-finger test is an invasive, unscientific and regressive practice where two fingers are inserted into the vagina to assess the laxity of vaginal muscles and examine the hymen. In rape cases, this test is used to gauge whether a person is sexually active.

  • Supreme Court on the two-finger test : The Supreme Court has declared that any person conducting the invasive ‘twofinger’ or ‘three-finger’ vaginal test on rape or sexual assault survivors will be found guilty of misconduct. The court said that this test has no scientific basis and neither proves nor disproves allegations of rape. It instead re-victimises and re-traumatises women who may have been sexually assaulted and is an affront to their dignity. The court said that the legislature had amended the criminal law in 2013 to introduce Section 53A in the Indian Evidence Act.
  • Note: Section 53A says that the evidence of a victim’s character or her previous sexual experience with any person shall not be relevant to the issue of consent or the quality of consent in the prosecution of sexual offences.
  • The court also highlighted the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare for health providers in cases of sexual violence. These guidelines have forbid the application of the two-finger test.

Supreme Court upheld the validity of the 103rd C.A.A. 2019 { Article 15 (6) and 16 (6) }

  • By a majority of 3:2, a five-judge Bench of the Supreme Court has upheld the validity of the 103rd Constitution Amendment, which came into effect in January 2019.
  • 3: 2 split of Judges
3 Judges in support of 103rd CAA 2 judges against 103rd CAA
  • Justice Dinesh Maheshwari
  • Justice Bela Trivedi
  • Justice S B Pardiwala
  • Chief Justice of India U U Lalit
  • Justice S Ravindra Bhat

3 main legal challenges before the Supreme Court on EWS Quota?

Challenges How majority (3:2) of Judges responded
  • Whether       the      103rd        Constitution Amendment is violative of the basic structure for providing reservation solely on the basis of economic criteria.
Reservation is an affirmative action measure not only for socially and economically backward classes but for any disadvantaged section. Therefore, reservation solely on an economic basis does not violate the constitution.
  • Whether the amendment is violative of the basic structure for excluding the poor among the SC/ST/OBC categories from EWS Quota.
Exclusion of SC/ST and OBCs from EWS reservations is constitutionally valid.


  • Whether the amendment is violative of the basic structure for breaching the 50% ceiling limit.


Quotas for SC, ST, OBCs are limited to 50% and here 10% was being reserved for EWS without impacting the reservations granted to the three other groups. The 50% ceiling limit itself is flexible and only applies to caste-based reservations. The court held that 50% cap can be breached under “extraordinary” situations.

EWS quota is not a completely alien concept. It is in the Right to Education Act 2009.

About Reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS)  Background:

  • Reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) of the society was granted based on the recommendations of a commission headed by Major General (retd) S R Sinho. The Commission was constituted by the then Union government in 2005, and submitted its report in 2010.
  • To implement this, a Cabinet Note was prepared by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment in 2019.
  • Based on this, the Cabinet, in 2019, decided to amend the Constitution (103rd Amendment) to provide reservation to EWS.

About EWS Reservations:

  • The 103rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2019 added Clause (6) to Article 15 of the Constitution to give the government the authority to make special provisions for the EWS among citizens who are not already eligible for reservation. The Act allows up to 10 per cent reservation in public and private educational institutions, whether aided or unaided, with the exception of minority-run institutions.
  • The Act also added Clause (6) to Article 16 of the Constitution to promote the welfare of the poor (EWS) not covered by the 50% reservation policy for Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs) and Other Backward Classes (OBCs). The Act states unequivocally that the EWS reservation will be added to the existing reservation.

Eligibility Criteria:

  • Candidate’s annual family income must be less than 8 lakhs per annum.
  • Their family must not own more than 5 acres of agriculture land,
  • The residential flat area should be below 1000 sq. ft.,

The residential plot’s area should be below 100 square yards if in a notified municipality sector, •       The residential plot’s area should be below 200 square yards if in a non-notified municipality sector.

  • Which institutions are covered?
  • EWS certificate can be used to avail the 10% reservation for the GEN-Economically Weaker Section in higher education and government jobs all over India. 

Pahari community is likely to be in ST list of J & K

  • The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes(NCST) has approved the inclusion of the ‘Pahari ethnic group’ in the Scheduled Tribes list of the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • NCST has also called for the inclusion of the “Paddari tribe”, “Koli” and “Gadda Brahman” communities to be included in the ST list of J&K.
  • Note : The suggestion for the inclusion of the Pahari ethnic group had come from the commission set up for socially and educationally backward classes in the Union Territory of J&K headed by Justice (Retd.) G.D. Sharma.
  • Currently, Jammu and Kashmir have 12 communities that have been notified as STs.

Who are Paharis?

  • The Pahari community is a linguistic group mainly residing in the Pir Panjal valley. They constitute of Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs and make up around 10-11 per cent of the population in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Their mother tongue, Pahari, is an offshoot of Pothwari language with varying dialects and their own unique culture.

They usually reside in rural areas and are majorly involved in agricultural and cattle activities.

  • There are around 12 lakh Pahari community living in J & K.
  • The Paharis are in the majority in Poonch (63 per cent in the 2011 Census), and Rajouri (64 per cent) districts of Jammu and are also found in sizable numbers in Uri, Boniyar, Keran and Karnah Tehsils in the Valley.

Criteria for inclusion in ST List

  • The criteria presently followed for specification of a community as a Scheduled Tribe are : (i) indications of primitive traits, (ii) distinctive culture, (iii) geographical isolation, (iv) shyness of contact with the community at large, and (v) backwardness. However, these criteria are not spelt out in the Constitution.

How is a community added or removed from ST lists?

  • The proposal to include or remove any community from the Scheduled List is sent to the Union Ministry of Tribal Affairs from the concerned State government.
  • After this, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs, through its own deliberations examines the proposal, and sends it to the Registrar General of India(RGI).
  • Once approved by the RGI, the proposal is sent to the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.
  • NCST after approving it sent it back to the Union government which introduces it in the Cabinet for final approval.
  • After this, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs will be required to bring a Bill to Parliament. Following this, the addition will be finalized once the President of India notifies the revised schedule as empowered by Article 342 of the Constitution of India. 

Electoral Bond scheme amended

  • Electoral bonds can be sold for 15 extra days during state elections
  • The department of economic affairs amended the electoral bonds scheme to allow their sale for 15 extra days during the year of general elections to the legislative assembly of states and Union territories with legislature.
  • Major Change after amendment : So far, it was sold four times a year (in January, April, July and October) for 10 days as notified by the government. With the latest change, 15 additional days will be provided in the years that have assembly elections, too.
  • Note : Earlier, only an additional period of 30 days was allowed to be specified by the central government in the year of the Lok Sabha


  • An electoral bond is a bearer instrument, like a promissory note, that is payable to the bearer on demand to donate their contributions to political parties.
  • The Electoral Bonds are the non-interest-bearing financial instruments. These Electoral bonds allow eligible donors to pay eligible political parties using banks as an intermediary. The Electoral Bonds aim to ensure transparency in the funding of political parties. Eligibility:
  • Only political parties registered under Section 29A of the Representation of thePeople Act, 1951 and which secured not less than 1% of votes polled in the last general electionto the House of the People or the Legislative Assembly of the State, are eligible to receive electoral bonds.
  • The electoral bond scheme was launched by the Union government in 2018.

According to data available from SBI, as of August 2022, donations to political parties through electoral bonds (EBs) have crossed the Rs 10,000-crore mark.


  • A citizen of India or a body incorporated in India is eligible to purchase the bond.
  • EBs are issued/purchased for any value, in multiples of Rs 1,000, Rs 10,000, Rs 1,00,000, Rs 10,00,000 and Rs 1,00,00,000 from the specified branches of the State Bank of India (SBI).
  • SBI is the only bank authorised to sell these bonds.
  • Anonymous cash donations were capped at Rs 2,000.
  • EBs have a life of only 15 days during which it can be used for making donation only to the registered political parties.
  • The bonds shall be available for purchase for a period of 10 days each in the months of January, April, July and October as may be specified by the Central Government.
  • The bond can be encashed by an eligible political party only through a designated bank account with the authorised bank.
  • The political parties have to disclose the amount to the Election Commission.

Significance :

  • EBs were introduced to ensure that all the donations made to a party would be accounted for in the balance sheets without exposing the donor details to the public.
  • The donor’s name is not mentioned on the bond.
  • Donors who contribute less than Rs 20,000 to political parties through purchase of electoral bonds need not provide their identity details such as PAN, etc.
  • The Central government said that electoral bonds would keep a tab on the use of black money for funding elections.
  • In the absence of electoral bonds, donors would have no option but to donate by cash after siphoning off money from their businesses.


  • The central criticism of the electoral bonds scheme is that it does the exact opposite of what it was meant to do: bring transparency to election funding.
  • For example, critics argue that the anonymity of electoral bonds is only for the broader public and opposition parties.
  • The fact that such bonds are sold via a government-owned bank (SBI) leaves the door open for the government to know exactly who is funding its opponents.
  • This, in turn, allows the possibility for the government of the day to either extort money, especially from the big companies, or victimise them for not funding the ruling party.
  • Hence, electoral bonds provide an unfair advantage to the party in power.
  • No upper limit on funding – Before the electoral bonds scheme was announced, there was a cap on how much a company could donate to a political party: 7.5 per cent of the average net profits of a company in the preceding three years.
  • However, the government amended the Companies Act 2013 to remove this limit, opening the doors to unlimited funding by corporate India.

All Employees Can opt for PF Pensions Scheme : Supreme Court ruled

  • The Supreme Court has upheld the Employees’ Pension (Amendment) Scheme, 2014 of the Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation as “legal and valid” while reading down certain provisions. What is EPFO Pension scheme?
  • The Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952 originally did not provide for any pension scheme.
  • In 1995, through an amendment, a scheme was formulated for employees’ pension. The scheme which is administered by the EPFO aims to provide employees with pension after the age of 58.
  • Both the employee and the employer contribute 12% of the employee’s basic salary and dearness allowance to the EPF. The employee’s entire part goes to EPF while the 12% contribution made by the employer is split as 3.67% contribution to EPF and 8.33% contribution to EPS. Apart from this, the Government of India contributes 1.16% as well for an employee’s pension. Employees do not contribute to the pension scheme.
  • At that point of time, maximum pensionable salary was Rs 5,000 per month which was later raised to Rs 6,500. What was the amendment in 2014?
  • The EPS amendment of 2014 had raised the pensionable salary cap to Rs 15,000 a month from Rs 6,500 a month and allowed members along with their employers to contribute 8.33% on their actual salaries (if it exceeded the cap) towards the EPS. It gave all EPS members, as on September 1,2014, six months to opt for the amended scheme.
  • However, the amendment required such members (with actual salaries over Rs 15,000 a month) to contribute an additional 1.16% of their salary exceeding Rs 15,000 a month towards the pension fund.

What is the Supreme Court ruling on 2014 amendments?

  • The court has struck down a requirement in the 2014 amendments that employees who go beyond the salary threshold (of ₹15,000 per month) should contribute monthly to the pension scheme at the rate of 1.16% of their salary.
  • The court also held that employees who were eligible to join the EPS Scheme but were unable to do so because they did not exercise their option by the deadline can do so within the next four months.

Who can become Vice-Chancellor : Supreme Court Ruling

  • A case appears before Supreme Court regarding the appointment of a Vice-Chancellor of Soban Singh Jeena University of Uttarakhand.
  • The Supreme Court said that the Vice-Chancellor appointment has to be made out of the panel of the names recommended by the Search-cum-Selection Committee. A Vice-Chancellor should also have a minimum teaching experience of 10 years as a professor in a university.
  • The Supreme Court cited the provisions of the University Act, 2019 and the University Grants Commission Regulations of 2018.
  • According to the University Grants Commission (UGC) Regulations, 2018, the VC of a university, in general, is appointed by the Visitor/Chancellor, from a panel of three to five names recommended by the duly constituted Search cum Selection Committee.
  • A visitor is empowered to call for a set of fresh names in case of dissatisfaction with the given panel.
  • Note: In Indian universities, the President of India is the ex-officio Visitor of all the Central Universities and the Governor of the respective states is the Chancellor of all the state universities.

Reservation more than 50 %

  • The Jharkhand Assembly passed a Bill to raise the total reservation for Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC) in State government posts to up to 77%.
  • The 77 percent reservation breaches the 50 percent ceiling set by the Supreme Court in the landmark 1992 Indra Sawhney v Union of India verdict. However, placing a legislation in the Ninth Schedule shields it from judicial scrutiny to some extent.
  • Previously, the Tamil Nadu Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Reservation of Seats in Educational Institutions and of Appointments or Posts in the Services under the State) Act, 1993, reserved 69 % of the seats in colleges and jobs in the state government.
  • Note: I R Coelho v. State of Tamil Nadu (2007): It was held that every law must be tested under Article 14, 19 and 21 if it came into force after 24th April 1973.

Bestiality as a Crime

  • Recently, the Government has introduced the draft Prevention of Cruelty to Animal (Amendment) Bill-2022 to amend the six-decade-old law Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act, 1960.
  • The draft has been prepared by the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying. ▪ What are the Proposed Amendments?
  • Bestiality as a Crime: The draft includes ‘bestiality’ as a crime under the new category of ‘gruesome cruelty’.
  • “Bestiality” means any kind of sexual activity or intercourse between human being and animal. Gruesome cruelty has been defined as “an act that leads to extreme pain and suffering to the animals which may cause lifelong disability or death”.
  • Punishment for Gruesome Cruelty : A minimum fine of Rs 50,000 may be imposed and may be increased to Rs 75,000 by a judicial magistrate in consultation with the jurisdictional veterinarians, or the cost may be determined by the judicial magistrate whichever is more, or a maximum fine of one year that may be extended to three years.


12th  India Chem 2022, Delhi

  • Recently, 12th Biennial International Exhibition and Conference India Chem 2022 was inaugurated at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi.
  • Organized by : jointly by Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI). I
  • Theme 2022 : “Vision 2030: Chemicals and Petrochemicals Build India”.
  • India Chem is the flagship event of the Indian Government’s Department of Chemicals & Petrochemicals. It is the largest event focusing on Indian chemicals and petrochemical industry. It is one of the largest composite events of the industry in the Asia-Pacific Region.
  • The Indian Chemicals and Petrochemicals industry, being the backbone of the Indian economy plays a major role in the growth of various sectors in the Indian economy. Sectors such as automotive, construction, electronics, healthcare, textiles and FMCG are hugely reliant on it for their growth.

Key Facts

  • Globally, India is the fourth-largest producer of agrochemicals after the United States, Japan and China.
  • India is the sixth-largest producer of chemicals in the world.
  • India is the second-largest manufacturer and exporter of dyes and accounts for 16% of the world’s production.
  • The country’s chemicals industry is de-licensed, except for few hazardous chemicals.
  • India holds a strong position in exports and imports of chemicals at a global level and ranks 14th in exports and 8th in imports at global level (excluding pharmaceuticals). Related Government Initiatives?
  • Under the Union Budget 2022-23, the government allocated Rs. 209 crores to the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals.
  • Production linked incentive (PLI) Schemes have been introduced to promote Bulk Drug Parks.

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing

  • According to Indian Navy, as many as 392 reported incidents of illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing were monitored in 2021 compared to 379 in 2020 in the Indian Ocean.
  • Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing continues to rise beyond India’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Chinese fishing vessels, fishing vessels from European Union countries and other countries from outside the region were observed to be fishing in the Indian Ocean.
  • Most of the illegal activity is found in the Northern Indian Ocean Region (IOR).
  • IUU fishing: IUU fishing depletes fish stocks, destroys marine habitats, puts fishermen at disadvantage and impacts coastal communities, especially in developing countries. IUU fishing undermines national and regional efforts to conserve and manage fish stocks and, as a consequence, inhibits progress towards achieving the goals of long-term sustainability and responsibility.

Vostro accounts

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has allowed the opening of nine special vostro accounts in two Indian Banks (UCO Bank and IndusInd Bank) for the settlement of payments in rupee for trade between India and Russia.
  • Russia’s two largest banksSberbank and VTB Bank — are the first foreign lenders to have received approval from the RBI towards settling international trade transactions in rupee.
  • Russia becomes first country to facilitate rupee-based export-import transactions
  • The move will facilitate India’s exports to sanction-hit Russia, which reported a 24% decline in the April-August period. The RBI-designed mechanism only entails trade in the Indian rupee, eliminating exchange risks.
  • To facilitate trade through this route, the government, through an amendment in the foreign trade policy recently, allowed exporters to avail of incentives or duty rebates for settling trade in rupee terms.
Vostro account

  • A Vostro account is an account that a domestic bank holds for a foreign bank in the domestic bank’s currency — which, in the case of India, is the rupee.
  • In the case of trade with Russia, payments in rupee for the export and import of goods will go to these Vostro accounts. The owners and beneficiaries of this money will be the exporters and importers in both countries. The banks will keep a record of money transferred.
Nostro account

  • Vostro and Nostro accounts are technically the same type of account with the difference being who opens the account and where.
  • So, if an Indian bank like the SBI wants to open an account in the United States, it will get in touch with a bank in the US, which will open a Nostro account and accept payments for SBI in dollars.
  • The account opened by the Indian bank in the US will be a Nostro account for the Indian bank, while for the US bank, the account will be considered a Vostro account.

Online bond platform providers

  • The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has come out with a detailed regulatory framework for online bond platform providers in a bid to streamline their operations.
    • Online Bond Platform : As per SEBI, an Online Bond Platform is an electronic system other than a recognised stock exchange or an electronic book providing a platform on which debt securities are listed or proposed to be listed are offered and transacted.
    • The online bond platform provider means any person operating or providing such a platform.

Why regulatory framework for Online Bond Platform Providers (OBPPs)?

  • During the past few years, there has been an increase in the number of OBPPs offering debt securities to noninstitutional investors. Most of them are fintech companies or are backed by stock brokers. However, the operations of OBPs were outside SEBI’s regulatory purview. Hence, this regulatory framework has been issued.

What are the key provisions of the regulatory framework for OBPPs?

  • Online Bond Platform Providers(OBPPs) would be companies incorporated in India and they should register themselves as stockbrokers in the debt segment of the stock exchange.
  • OBPPs cannot offer products or services on its platform except listed debt securities and debt securities proposed to be listed through a public offering. 


  • The US secretary of treasury has pushed for “friendshoring” to diversify trade away from countries that are present at geopolitical risk.
  • Friendshoring is also called allyshoring. It is a strategy where a country sources raw materials, components, and even manufactured goods from countries that share its values. The dependence on the countries considered a “threat” to the stability of the supply chains is slowly reduced.
  • Example: Friendshoring is already visible, with Western companies diversifying supply chains and investing beyond

China. For instance, Apple’s announcement to shift its iPhone manufacturing facilities from China to India. Implications of Friendshoring :

  • Firstly, friendshoring may push the world towards a more isolated place for trade and reverse the gains of globalization. It is a part of the “de-globalization” process.
  • Secondly, one of the important things about the global supply chain is that it allows firms to manufacture goods wherever it is cheapest. Hence, the final products become more affordable and consumers are benefited. With friendshoring, there can be a change in the dynamics of the global supply chain, restricting manufacturers and ultimately increasing costs for consumers. 


  • The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is working on guidelines for financial influencers — popularly known as ‘finfluencers’.
  • Finfluencers are people with public social media platforms offering advice and sharing personal experiences about money and investment in stocks. Their videos cover budgeting, investing, property buying, cryptocurrency advice and financial trend tracking.
  • Need of the Regulations: The number of ‘unregistered’ investment advisors giving unsolicited ‘stock’ tips on social media platforms has increased dramatically. In addition, certain companies used social media platforms to boost their share prices through finfluencers.

RBI’s data on Rural wages

  • Recently, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) released data on daily wage payments in India.

Agricultural Workers:

  • Kerala leads in highly paid agricultural workers with an average wage of Rs 726.8 per worker (National average is Rs 323.2)
  • In Jammu & Kashmir, farm workers get an average wage of Rs 524.6, Himachal Pradesh Rs 457.6, and Tamil Nadu Rs 445.6 per person.

Non-agricultural Workers:

  • Kerala again leads in non-agricultural workers’ wages with Rs 681.8 wage per person.
  • Kerala was followed by J&K, Tamil Nadu and Haryana for the year ended March 2022.

Construction Workers:

  • Daily wage for rural construction workers was Rs 837.7 in Kerala, Rs 519.8 in J&K, Rs 478.6 in Tamil Nadu and Rs 462.7 in Himachal Pradesh. 

Govt of India to Abolish National Anti-profiteering Authority

  • National Anti-profiteering Authority(NAA) is the anti-profiteering watchdog of GST and it is all set to be subsumed into the Competition Commission of India (CCI).
  • NAA’s role is to make sure that the benefit of tax rate reduction reaches the consumer immediately. This has been the role of NAA primarily because the GST council has been rejigging the rates in the last five years. NAA has little to do when rates go up. 


  • The Prime Minister paid tribute to the unsung heroes of the Bhil tribal community, during his visit to the Mangarh Dham in Rajasthan’s Banswara district.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi declared Mangarh Dham a National Monument in the Banswara District, Rajasthan. PM Modi mentioned that India’s past, present, and future are not complete without the tribal community.
  • The dham, a memorial for around 1,500 tribals massacred by the British army in 1913.


  • Mangarh Dham is known for the massacre of tribals by the British Indian Army in 1913.
  • It is located in the Banswara district on the Gujarat-Rajasthan border, a region with a large tribal population.
  • Social reformer Govind Guru led the gathering of tribals and forest dwellers in 1913 in Mangarh against the British Raj.
  • Note : Mangarh hill massacre is known as the “Jallianwala Bagh massacre of the Vagad region“.
  • About Govind Guru: He started working with the Bhil community during the great famine of 1899-1900. He advocated systematically fighting social problems such as liquor consumption and intergenerational debt. He initiated the Bhagat Sampradaya (sect) in 1908 to socially and morally uplift the Bhil community.

About Bhil Tribe

  • The word Bhil is derived from “Veel”, which means “bow” in the Dravidian language.
  • The Bhil tribe is called “Dhanush Purush of India” because they are highly adept at learning Dhanush.
  • Bhils are a group of tribal Indians scattered throughout India from Gujarat in the west to Tripura in the Far East.
  • As of 2013, they were the largest tribal group in India with the majority living in the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh.
  • Bhils have a rich and unique culture. The Bhilala subdivision is known for its Pithora painting.
  • Ghoomar is a traditional folk dance of the Bhil tribe. Ghoomar is the symbol of femininity.
  • The young women take part in this dance. 

Pashmina Shawl

  • Recently, Custom officials complained about the presence of ‘Shahtoosh’ guard hair in Pashmina shawl, which is obtained from endangered Tibetan antelopes in many of their export consignments.

What is Pashmina?

  • Pashmina refers to a fine variant of spun cashmere (the animal-hair fibre), that is derived from the downy undercoat of the Changthangi (a breed of Goat).
  • Pashmina is a Geographical Indication (GI) certified wool that has its origin from Kashmir region of India.
  • The wool that is used in weaving the Pashmina Shawl is obtained from the Changthangi goats (Capra Hircus) domesticated in the Ladakh.
  • The raw Pashm is harvested by the Changpa tribes of Ladakh who herd the Changthangi goats. The Kashmiri weavers buy the raw pashm from the middle men, the only connecting link between the Changpa tribe & the Kashmiris; clean the grubby raw pashm fibre. This art of weaving Pashmina Shawls is passed on from generation to generation as a tradition in Kashmir.

o Note : As of 2001, the Changpa were classified as a Scheduled Tribe under the Indian Government’s reservation program of affirmative action. World Scenario

  • China accounts for 70% of the world’s cashmere production (followed by Mongolia (20%) and the remaining by others like Afghanistan, Australia, India, Iran, etc).
  • India contributes only about 1% of the world’s Pashmina, but the Pashmina produced in India is considered the best of the lot.

GI Certifying Criteria for Pashmina:

  • The shawl should be made from 100% pure Pashm. The fineness of the fibers should be up to 16 Microns.
  • The shawl should be handwoven by local artisans of Kashmir. The yarn should be only spun by hand. What is Shahtoosh?
  • Shahtoosh is the fine undercoat fibre obtained from the Tibetan Antelope, known locally as ‘Chiru’, a species living mainly in the northern parts of the Changthang Plateau in Tibet. As per the International Union for Conservation of

Nature (IUCN) Red list, Chiru has been classified as ‘Near Threatened’.

Concern of Traders • Traders of Pashmina shawls are complaining that “obsolete testing methods” have resulted in many of their export consignments being flagged by Customs authorities for presence of Shahtoosh guard hair, which is obtained from endangered Tibetan antelopes. The traders claim the use of obsolete techniques such as “light microscopy” by the authorities has resulted in several cases of “false positives”, leading to their wrongful prosecution.

3rd National Tribal Dance Festival :  Raipur

Chhattisgarh celebrates its 23rd State Foundation Day on 1st November 2022 and as a part of the celebrations, Raipur hosted the 3rd National Tribal Dance Festival.

  • It was organized under the Tourism and Culture Department of Chhattisgarh. In this Dance Festival, tribal dance groups from all states and union territories of India took part.
  • Other countries including Mongolia, Tongo, Russia, Indonesia, Maldives, and Mozambique also participates in the event. About 1500 tribal artists took part in the event of which 1400 were from India and 100 from other countries.

Nadaprabhu Kempegowda’s Bronze Statue : Bengaluru

  • Recently, the Prime Minister of India unveiled a 108-foot statue of Nadaprabhu Kempegowda and inaugurated Terminal 2 of Bengaluru airport, which is named after the 16th-century figure credited with founding the city. The status is called the “Statue of Prosperity”.
  • As per the ‘World Book of Records’, it is the first and the tallest bronze statue of a founder of a city.
  • Renowned sculptor and Padma Bhushan awardee Ram Vanji Sutar has designed the statue. (Sutar had built the ‘Statue of Unity’ in Gujarat and the statue of Mahatma Gandhi in Bengaluru’s ‘Vidhana Soudha’).
  • As a precursor to the unveiling, ‘Mruthike’ (sacred mud) was collected from over 22,000 locations across the state, which was mixed symbolically with the mud beneath one of the four towers of the statue.
  • About Nadaprabhu Kempegowda : He was born in 1513 in a village near Yelahanka. He was the chieftain under the Vijayanagara Empire of the 16th century. He is an iconic figure among Vokkaligas, Karnataka’s second most dominant community after Lingayats. He is widely acknowledged as the founder of Bengaluru, Karnataka. He is also credited with having developed around 1,000 lakes in the city to cater to its drinking and agricultural needs. He has been credited for abolishing the practice of cutting the fingers of the left hand of an unmarried woman during a custom known as ‘Bandi Devaru’, an important custom of Morasu Vokkaligas.
  • Recognition: State governments have dedicated important landmarks after him – the Kempegowda International Airport, the Kempegowda Bus Stand, and the Nadaprabhu Kempegowda Metro Station.

Patan Patola scarf

▪    Recently, PM Narendra Modi gifted ‘Patan Patola Dupatta’ to Italian PM Giorgia Meloni at G20 Summit.

  • The ancient art of double ikat or Patola woven in pure silk dates back to the 11th century. The Patola fabrics bear an equal intensity of colours and design on both sides.
  • This peculiar quality has its origins in an intricate and difficult technique of dyeing or knot dyeing, known as ‘bandhani’, on the warp and weft separately before weaving. One of the major practitioners of the dwindling art form is the Salvi family from North Gujarat. It received a Geographical Indication (GI) tag in 2013.
  • The weaving process: Patola is woven on primitive hand-operated harness looms made out of rosewood and bamboo strips. The loom lies on a slant. The other commonly worn Patola is the Rajkot Patola, woven on a flat loom.
  • Price: The base price of a Patola saree in the Patan weave starts from Rs 1.5 lakh up and can go up to Rs 6 lakh.
Patan Patola scarf


  • In his address to the Indian diaspora in Bali, Indonesia on the sidelines of the G20 summit, Prime Minister mentioned the annual Baliyatra on the banks of the Mahanadi in Odisha which celebrates the ancient trade relations between India and Indonesia.
  • Note: This year’s Baliyatra found a place in the Guinness World Records for achieving an impressive feat of origami, the creation of beautiful paper sculptures.
  • Baliyatra literally means ‘voyage to Bali’. It is one of the country’s largest open-air fairs organized on the banks of the Mahanadi in Cuttack, Odisha.
  • Purpose: The festival is organized every year to commemorate the 2,000-year-old maritime and cultural links between ancient Kalinga (today’s Odisha) and Bali and other South and Southeast Asian regions like Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Burma (Myanmar), and Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
  • The festival starts on the day of Kartika Purnima (full moon day in the month of Kartik i.e October-November).
  • Ancient maritime link between Odisha and Indonesia : The Kalinga Empire (present-day Odisha) is known for its glorious maritime history. The Kalingas constructed large boats called the ‘Boitas’ to trade with the Indonesian islands.  Popular items of trade between Kalinga and Southeast Asia included pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, silk, camphor, gold, and jewellery. The trade-in commodities also led to the interchange of ideas and beliefs. Odia merchants formed settlements in Bali and influenced its culture and ethics.  As a result of these influences, the Balinese also celebrate Hindu Festivals such as Shivaratri, Durga Pooja, and Saraswati Pooja.
  • Interestingly, the ‘Masakapan ke Tukad’ festival celebrated in Bali is similar to the Bali Yatra festival in Odisha. Both festivals are celebrated in memory of their maritime ancestors.
  • Note: The dominance of the Kalingas over the sea routes can be understood from the fact that Kalidasa in his Raghuvamsa referred to the King of Kalinga as ‘The Lord of the Sea’.

Lachit Borphukan

  • The Prime Minister has paid tributes to Lachit Borphukan on the occasion of Lachit Divas.
  • Note: Assam celebrates Lachit Divas on November 24 as a tribute to Borphukan valour and heroism.
  • Lachit Borphukan was a commander in the erstwhile Ahom kingdom. He is known for his leadership in the 1671 Battle of Saraighat that thwarted an attempt by Mughal forces to capture Assam. The battle of Saraighat was fought on the banks of the Brahmaputra in Guwahati.
  • He defeated the Mughal Army by brilliant uses of the terrain, guerrilla tactics, clever diplomatic negotiations to buy time, military intelligence and by exploiting the sole weakness of the Mughal forces—its navy.

Significance of Lachit Borphukan

  • Lachit Borphukan was the inspiration behind strengthening India’s naval force and revitalising inland water transport and creating infrastructure associated with it due to his great naval strategies.
  • The Lachit Borphukan gold medal is awarded to the best cadet from the National Defence Academy. The medal was instituted in 1999 to inspire defence personnel to emulate Borphukan’s heroism and sacrifices.

Shaheedi Divas of Guru Tegh Bahadur

  • Every Year, 24th November, is commemorated as the Shaheedi Divas of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth guru of the Sikhs, who stood up against forcible conversions by the Mughals.
  • As a boy, Tegh Bahadur was called Tyag Mal because of his ascetic nature. He was the 9th Sikh Guru, often venerated as the ‘Protector of Humanity’ (Srisht-di-Chadar) by the Sikhs.
  • He was also an avid traveler and played a key role in setting up preaching centers throughout the Indian subcontinent.

During one such mission, he founded the town of Chak-Nanki in Punjab, which later became a part of Punjab’s Anandpur Sahib.

  • In the year 1675, Guru Tegh Bahadur was executed in Delhi under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Dhamma Dipa International Buddhist University (DDIBU)

  • Shakya Gasan, chief monk of the World Buddhist Pope Association of South Korea, laid the foundation stone for the International Buddhist University at Manu Bankul in Sabroom of South Tripura district on Nov 29.
  • DDIBU is expected to become the first Buddhist-run university in India to offer Buddhist education along with courses in other disciplines of modern education as well. It will be the first Buddhist University in India to be headed by Buddhist monastics and run and monitored by Buddhists.
  • The word, Dhammadipa, describes both a core principle and a guiding force, which seeks the light of Dharma, its international scope and measure.
  • Students from 31 countries will get a chance to study as well as carry out research on Buddhist literature, culture and tradition in the proposed varsity.


Rituraj Awasthi :

  • Appointed as Chairperson of the 22nd Law Commission of India.
  • Earlier, Justice Awasthi has served as the Chief Justice of the Karnataka High Court.
  • The 22nd Law Commission was constituted by the Government on February 21, 2020.
  • In News: Recently, the central government appointed chairperson and members of the Law Commission over two and a half years after it was constituted.
  • Note: The Chairman of 21st Law Commission was former Supreme Court judge Balbir Singh Chauhan.

About Law Commission

  • The Law Commission of India is a non-statutory body constituted by the Government of India from time to time. It works as an advisory body to the Ministry of Law and Justice.
  • History : The first Law Commission was established during the British Raj era in 1834 by the Charter Act of 1833 and was chaired by Lord Macaulay.

o The first Law Commission of independent India was established in 1955 for a three-year term.

  • Composition: Apart from having a full-time chairperson, the commission will have four full-time members, including a member-secretary. Law and Legislative Secretaries in the Law Ministry will be the ex-officio members of the commission. It will also have not more than five part-time members. A retired Supreme Court judge or Chief Justice of a High Court will head the Commission.

Justice Dhanajaya Yeshwant Chandrachud

  • Took oath as the 50th Chief Justice of India (CJI) succeeding the 49th CJI Uday Umesh Lalit.

While his predecessor, Justice Uday Umesh Lalit, had a brief tenure of 74 days, Justice Chandrachud will have a tenure of two years and is due to retire on 10th November, 2024.

  • President Draupadi Murmu administered the oath of office to Justice Chandrachud at a brief ceremony held at the Rashtrapati Bhawan on 9th November 2022.
  • Justice D Y Chandrachud is the son of India’s longest-serving Chief Justice Y V Chandrachud (16th Chief Justice of India, serving from 1978 to 1985.). Who will be 51st CJI
  • Justice Sanjiv Khanna is expected to assume charge as the 51st CJI in November 2024 and will have a tenure of six months. 

Note : International Hockey Federation Headquarters- Lausanne, Switzerland;


Dr Rajesh Ranjan  (IFS)
  • Indian Ambassador to the West African nation of Cote d’Ivoire or Ivory Coast.
Mohammad Tayyab Ikram

(from Macau, China)

(Pakistan born)

  • Asian Hockey Federation (AHF) CEO Mohammad Tayyab Ikram of Macau has been appointed as President of the International Hockey Federation (FIH).
  • He succeeded India’s Narinder Batra as its full-time chief.
  • Ikram defeated Marc Coudron of Belgium 79-47 in the 48th FIH Congress held virtually.
  • The duration of Ikram’s term will be for two years.
  • Note : International Hockey Federation Headquarters- Lausanne, Switzerland;
Kishor Kumar Basa 
  • Appointed as Chairman of the National Monument Authority (NMA).
Gaurav Dwivedi (Senior IAS officer)
  • Chief Executive Officer of public broadcaster Prasar Bharati.
Preeti Sudan
  • She has taken the oath of office and secrecy as Member, UPSC. The oath was administered to her by the UPSC chairman Dr Manoj Soni.
Dr CV Ananda Bose
  • Governor of West Bengal.
Arvind Virmani
  • Former Chief Economic Advisor, Arvind Virmani has been appointed as a full time member of NITI Aayog.
  • The other existing Members of NITI Aayog are VK Saraswat, Ramesh Chand and VK Paul. While Suman Bery is the Vice Chairman of NITI Aayog, Parameswaran is the incumbent CEO of the think tank.
Natasa Pirc Musar
  • She has become the first female President of the Slovenia.
Greg Barclay
  • New Zealand’s Greg Barclay unanimously re-elected as the International Cricket Council (ICC) chairman for another two-year term.
Aruna Miller
  • Indian-American woman Aruna Miller has became the first immigrant to hold the office of Lieutenant Governor in Maryland, Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.
Kassym-Jomart Tokayev
  • Re-elected as President of Kazakhstan
Anwar Ibrahim
  • Prime-Minister of Malaysia.
Asim Munir
  • Lieutenant General Asim Munir has become the new army chief of Pakistan.
  • He replaced General Qamar Javed Bajwa.


Restrictions on the use Glyphosate

  • Glyphosate is an herbicide. It is applied to the leaves of plants to kill both broadleaf plants and grasses. The sodium salt form of glyphosate is used to regulate plant growth and ripen specific crops.
  • Glyphosate and its formulations are widely registered and currently used in more than 160 countries, including the EU and the USA. Farmers across the globe have been using it for safe and effective weed control for over 40 years.
  • Use of Glyphosate in India : Its usage became popular in the country after the illegal cultivation of Ht BT cotton It is mainly used in tea plantations to control the growth of unwanted plants (weeds). It is also used in noncrop areas to prevent plant growth. Recent Restrictions on Glyphosate
  • The government has restricted use of Glyphosate and its derivatives, fearing health hazards and risk to human beings/animals. The new notification mandates that all certificates of registration for the Glyphosate that companies have to get for its manufacture or sale have now to be returned to the registration committee. Failure to do so will result in appropriate action being taken under the Insecticides Act of 1968.
  • Glyphosate is banned because of its potential link to cancer in Humans and its role in causing deaths of important insects like bees. Its usage caused rapid decline in insect population, which damaged ecosystem by disrupting food chain and plant pollination.

Where Glyphosate can still be used ?

  • The new rules permit only pest control operators to apply glyphosate. Pest control operators are licensed to use deadly chemicals for eliminating pests like rodents.

Which other Countries have banned Glyphosate ?

  • Some 35 countries have banned or restricted the use of glyphosate. These include Sri Lanka, Netherlands, France, Colombia, Canada, Israel and Argentina. 


  • Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) has demanded a ban on using Aceclofenac in cattle after a new study showed that Aceclofenac is metabolized into diclofenac in water buffaloes as it does in cows.
  • Diclofenac — it was an anti-inflammatory drug banned for veterinary use by the Government of India in 2006. It was found to be the main cause of a dramatic decline (99 percent) of the vulture population across Asia. 

Coronal Holes

  • Recently, NASA captured an image having dark patches on the sun’s surface resembling eyes and a smile. NASA has explained that these patches are called coronal holes which can be seen in ultraviolet light but are typically invisible to our eyes.
  • These are regions on the sun’s surface from where fast solar wind gushes out into space. Because they contain little solar material, they have lower temperatures and thus appear much darker than their surroundings. Here, the magnetic field is open to interplanetary space, sending solar material out in a high-speed stream of solar wind. Coronal holes can last between a few weeks to months.
  • The holes are not a unique phenomenon, appearing throughout the sun’s approximately 11-year solar cycle.
  • They can last much longer during solar minimum – a period of time when activity on the Sun is substantially diminished, according to NASA.


  • While it is unclear what causes coronal holes, they correlate to areas on the sun where magnetic fields soar up and away, without looping back down to the surface as they do elsewhere.


  • These ‘coronal holes’ are important to understanding the space environment around the earth.
  • Scientists study these fast solar wind streams because they sometimes interact with earth’s magnetic field, creating what’s called a geomagnetic storm, which can expose satellites to radiation and interfere with communications signals. 

Cordy Gold Nanoparticles (Cor-AuNPs)

  • Recently, a collaborative experiment by scientists from four Indian institutions including Bodoland University, has earned an international patent from Germany for developing Cordy Gold Nanoparticles (Cor-AuNPs), which can make drug delivery in the human body faster and surer.

How Cor-AuNPs is developed ?

  • Cordy gold nanoparticles(Cor-AuNPs) are derived from the synthesis of the extracts of Cordyceps militaris and Gold Salts.

What is Cordyceps Militaris?

  • Cordyceps militaris is a high value parasitic fungus. It is also called a super mushroom because of its tremendous medicinal properties. Wild Cordyceps mushroom is found in the eastern Himalayan belt.
  • It is also grown in the lab at the Department of Biotechnology’s Technology Incubation Centre (TIC) at Bodoland University, one of the collaborators of the patented research work. What are Gold salts?
  • Gold salts are ionic chemical compounds of gold. The term, “gold salts” is a misnomer and is the term for the gold compounds used in medicine. 

RISAT-2 satellite

  • ISRO’s radar-imaging satellite Risat-2 has finally landed on Earth after completing its ‘job’ for over 13 years and lands near Jakarta.


  • It was launched on 20 April 2009 by a PSLV C-12 rocket following the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks.
  • It was India’s first “eye in the sky” (dedicated reconnaissance satellite) to keep surveillance on the country’s borders as part of anti-infiltration and anti-terrorist operations. It was also used to track enemy ships at sea.
  • The main sensor of RISAT-2, which was able to observe in all weather conditions day and night, was Israel Aerospace Industries’ X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar.
  • It carried 30 kg of fuel for an initial designed life of four years.

Due to proper maintenance of orbit and mission planning by the spacecraft operations team in ISRO and by economical usage of fuel, RISAT-2 provided very useful payload data for 13 years. 

Waste-to-energy Programme

  • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
  • Aim: To help companies in the production of Biogas, BioCNG and power from urban, industrial, and agricultural wastes and residues.
  • The programme is part of an umbrella scheme called the National Bioenergy Programme.
  • Implementing Agency: Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency(IREDA)
  • Under the scheme, the government will offer Central Financial Assistance(CFA) to project developers while implementing agencies including inspection firms will be paid service charges for commissioning the waste-to-energy plants.

– If the waste-to-energy plants are set up in special category states such as the North East, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Lakshadweep, Uttarakhand, and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, the eligible CFA will be 20% higher than the standard CFA pattern.

  • Why In News : The Government of India has issued guidelines for rolling out its waste-to-energy programme.
Biogas BioCNG
  • It mainly   comprises hydro-carbon which is combustible and can produce heat and energy when burnt.
  • Biogas is produced through a biochemical process in which certain types of bacteria convert the biological wastes into useful bio-gas.
  • Since the useful gas originates from a biological process, it has been termed as bio-gas.
  • Methane gas is the main constituent of biogas.
  • Bio-CNG is a renewable fuel obtained by purifying biogas – in contrast to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), a non-renewable source of energy.
  • Biogas is produced when microbes break down organic matter like food, crop residue, waste water, etc.
  • It is similar to natural gas in terms of its composition and properties, and is a cleaner alternative to fuels such as petrol and diesel.

Falcon Heavy rocket : SpaceX

  • Recently, SpaceX launched the Falcon Heavy rocket into a geosynchronous Earth orbit from the Kennedy Space Center. The company hails this as the most powerful operational rocket in the world. This is the fourth launch of the giant rocket system, and the first one in nearly three years since its last launch in 2019.
  • The rocket is carrying satellites to space for the U.S. military in a mission named as S. Space Force (USSF)-44. The mission deployed two spacecraft payloads.
  • One of which is the TETRA 1 microsatellite and the other is for national defence purposes. It will place the satellites for the Space Systems Command’s Innovation and Prototyping.
  • Note: Space Systems Command (SSC) is the oldest military space organisation in the United States Armed Forces. It is responsible for developing, acquiring, equipping, fielding and sustaining lethal and resilient space capabilities.

Specifications of the Falcon Heavy rocket :

  • Rocket engine: Falcon Heavy has 27 Merlin engines. Merlin is a family of rocket engines developed by SpaceX for use on its Falcon 1, Falcon 9 and Falcon Heavy launch vehicles.
  • Merlin engines use RP-1 and liquid oxygen as rocket propellants in a gas-generator power cycle. These engines were designed for recovery and reuse.
  • Lifting capacity: Around 64 metric tonnes into orbit. o Note: Falcon Heavy can lift more than twice the payload of the next closest operational vehicle, the Delta IV Heavy.
  • Previous launches: The Falcon Heavy debuted in 2018 when SpaceX CEO Elon Musk sent his personal electric sports car with a dummy driver, into space as a test payload. The car is still in space, orbiting around the sun.
  • SpaceX launched the other two Falcon Heavy missions in 2019. Prior to this, it was recently launched in June 2019.

Significance of the Falcon Heavy rocket

  • Falcon Heavy has 27 Merlin engines which together generate more than five million pounds of thrust at lift-off, equalling around eighteen 747 aircraft at full power. This makes it the most capable rocket flying.
  • SpaceX is said to be working on even bigger rockets. The company is targeting early December to launch its giant Starship rocket system. Starship to be the world’s most powerful launch vehicle ever developed, with the ability to carry an excess of 100 metric tonnes to Earth orbit. Vikram-S
  • India’s first privately developed rocket, Vikram-S, created history as it is launched from ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) launchpad in Sriharikota.
  • It was developed by the Hyderabad-based Skyroot Aerospace.
  • The mission named ‘Prarambh’ (the beginning), since it is the first mission for Skyroot.
  • With this maiden mission, Skyroot has become the first private space company in India to launch a rocket into space.
  • Why named Vikram S ? : As a tribute the rocket has been named after Vikram Sarabhai, who is considered as father of India’s space programme. 

David Bennett (from U.S.)

  • He had died in March 2022 died after 2 months (61 days) of heart transplant from a pig.
  • He was the first person to receive a heart transplant from a pig.
  • Findings: Genetically modified pig heart took longer than usual to beat for human receiver in the first-ever transplant of the gene-edited pig heart to human.
  • Xenotransplantation involves the transplantation of nonhuman tissues or organs into human recipients.
  • One of the biggest obstacles to transplantation is organ rejection. 

Ghaem 100 : Iran

  • Iran’s Revolutionary Guards recently tested Ghaem 100.
  • It is a three-stage, solid fuel launcher that will be able to place satellites weighing 80 kg (180 Pounds) in an orbit 500 km ( 300 miles) above the Earth’s surface.
  • The new rocket will be used for future launches of Iran’s Nahid communications satellites.

‘FloodHub’ : launched by Google

  • An American technology giant, Google has launched a platform that displays flood forecasts, namely ‘FloodHub’. This platform shows the area and time where floods could occur, in order to inform people about the natural calamity and authorities can assist them with effectively.
  • Google has used an AI technique called transfer learning to make it work in areas where there is less data available. 

Indian Biological Data Bank ( Biobank )

  • The Union Ministry of Science and Technology recently dedicated to the nation India’s first digitised repository for life science data – Indian Biological Data Center (IBDC), at the Regional Centre of Biotechnology (RCB), Faridabad, Haryana.
  • This will enable researchers to store biological data from publicly funded research, reducing their dependency on American and European data banks.
  • The data centre, which is India’s first national repository for life science data, is supported by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT) in collaboration with the National Informatics Centre (NIC), India.
  • The digitised data will be stored on a four-petabyte (1 petabyte = 10,00,000 gigabytes (gb)) supercomputer called ‘Brahm’. 


  • Several smartphones have their Bluetooth settings on discovery mode as it is a default setting, making it vulnerable to bluebugging.
  • About Bluebugging : It is a form of hacking that lets attackers access a device through its discoverable Bluetooth connection. A hacker can gain unauthorized access to these apps and devices and control them as per their wish through bluebugging. Any Bluetooth-enabled device including True Wireless Stereo (TWS) devices or earbuds are susceptible to bluebugging. Once a device or phone is bluebugged, a hacker can listen to the calls, read and send messages and steal and modify contacts. Even the most secure smartphones like iPhones are vulnerable to such attacks.
  • Preventive Measures: Turning off Bluetooth and disconnecting paired Bluetooth devices when not in use. Making Bluetooth devices undiscoverable from Bluetooth settings. Updating the device’s system software to the latest version.Limited use of public Wi-Fi. 

SARAS Telescope

  • Raman Research Institute RRI) in Bengaluru have determined properties of radio luminous galaxies formed just 200 million years after the Big Bang, a period known as the Cosmic Dawn. This was done using SARAS Telescope.
  • SARAS Telescope : Shaped Antenna measurement of the background Radio Spectrum 3 (SARAS) Telescope is indigenously designed and built at Raman Research Institute(RRI). It aims to detect extremely faint radio wave signals from the depths of time, from our “Cosmic Dawn” when the first stars and galaxies formed in the early Universe.


  • The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully launched 9 satellites (8 nano satellites and one Earth Observation Satellite /EOS-06), into multiple orbits using the space agency’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLVC54) in one of its longest missions.
  • Place of launch – Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), SHAR, Sriharikota.


  • The 8 nano satellites: It includes ISRO Nano Satellite-2 for Bhutan (INS-2B), Anand, Astrocast (four satellites) and two Thybolt satellites.
  • EOS-6: It is the Oceansat series’ 3rd-generation satellite envisaged to observe ocean colour data, sea surface temperature and wind vector data to use in oceanography, climatic and meteorological applications.

Future missions ISRO is planning:

  • ISRO is planning to have its mission to the sun with its satellite Aditya-L1, a coronagraphy spacecraft to study the solar atmosphere, with a PSLV rocket next year.
  • The space agency will also launch 4 navigation satellites for the country’s NavIC constellation, with the first one going up in 2023.



  • It is a trilateral maritime exercise among the Indian, Mozambique and Tanzania navies.
  • The first edition of India-Mozambique-Tanzania Trilateral Exercise(IMT TRILAT) has started at Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
  • The Indian Navy is represented by the guided missile frigate, INS Tarkash, a Chetak helicopter and MARCOS (Special Forces).
  • Objectives of the exercise: 1) Capability development to address common threats through training and sharing of best practices, 2) Enhancing interoperability and 3) Strengthening maritime cooperation.
  • Significance: These exercises reflect India’s and the Indian Navy’s commitment to enhancing maritime security and cooperation with maritime neighbours in the Indian Ocean Region and promoting SAGAR (Safety and Growth for All in the Region). Vision ‘SAGAR’
  • Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR) was launched in 2015. It is India’s strategic vision for the Indian Ocean Region (IOR). Through SAGAR, India seeks to deepen economic and security cooperation with its maritime neighbours and assist in building their maritime security capabilities. Further, India seeks to safeguard its national interests and ensure the Indian Ocean region to become inclusive, collaborative and respect international law. The key relevance of SAGAR emerges when seen in conjunction with India’s other policies impacting the maritime domain like Act East Policy, Project Sagarmala, Project Mausam, India as ‘net security provider’, focus on Blue Economy 

26th International Malabar Naval Exercise

  • India is participating in 26th International Malabar Naval Exercise begins in Yokosuka of Japan.
  • In the Malabar Naval Exercise, Australia, Japan and the USA are also participating.
  • Indian Naval Ships Shivalik and Kamorta are ready to demonstrate at the event.
  • The MALABAR exercise was initiated in 1992 between the navies of India and the United States.
  • Since 2007, MALABAR has been held alternatively off Indian Coast and in the Western Pacific.
  • The exercise has been held every year since 2002 (there was a gap after the 1992, 1995, and 1996 editions due to India’s nuclear testing).
  • It was expanded into a trilateral format with the inclusion of Japan in 2015.
  • In 2020 Australia joined the Malabar Exercise on India’s request in order to contain China in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • For the first time in over a decade, Malabar 2020 saw the participation of all four Quad members (India, Australia, Japan and the USA). 

C-295 transport aircraft manufacturing facility –Vadodara, Gujarat

  • Recently, Prime Minister of India has laid the foundation stone for the C-295 transport aircraft manufacturing facility in Vadodara to be set up by Airbus Defence and Space S.A., Spain and Tata Advanced Systems Limited (TASL).
  • It is the first project of its kind in which a military aircraft will be manufactured in India by a private company. It is also the first time that the C295 aircraft will be manufactured outside of Europe.

C295 aircraft

  • C295 is a new-generation tactical airlifter in the light and medium segment. It is manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space in Spain.
  • Equipped with: Two Pratt & Whitney engines.
  • Purpose: C295 can carry troops and logistical supplies from main airfields to forward operating airfields of the country.
  • It can also operate on short unprepared airstrips as it is capable of Short Take-off and Landing (STOL).
  • It can additionally be used for casualty or medical evacuation, performing special missions, disaster response and maritime patrol duties
  • India has concluded a deal with Airbus for C295 medium transport aircraft(MTA). As part of the deal, the first 16 aircraft in ‘fly-away’ condition from Spain within four years and the subsequent 40 aircraft will be manufactured by Tata Advanced Systems Ltd (TASL) in India as part of an industrial partnership between the two companies.
  • Features of C295 aircraft: The C295MW is a transport aircraft with a 5 to 10-tonne capacity and a maximum speed of 480 kmph.
  • It has a rear ramp door for quick reaction and para-dropping of troops and cargo. Short take-off and landing from semi-prepared surfaces are some other features.
  • The company claims this aircraft has the longest unobstructed cabin in its class which can accommodate 71 seats.
  • All aircraft will be fitted with an indigenous electronic warfare suite to be developed by Bharat Electronics Ltd and Bharat Dynamics Limited. 

Sea Vigil-22 : Coastal Defence Exercise

  • The third edition of the ‘Pan-India’ Coastal Defence Exercise ‘Sea Vigil-22’ conducted on 15-16 Nov 22.
  • This National Level Coastal Defence Exercise was conceptualised in 2018 to validate various measures that have been instituted towards enhancing maritime security since ‘26/11’.
  • The concept of ‘Sea Vigil’ is to activate the Coastal Security apparatus across India and assess the overarching Coastal Defence mechanism.
  • The exercise is undertaken along the entire 7516 km coastline and Exclusive Economic Zone of India and involved all the Coastal States and Union territories along with other maritime stakeholders, including the fishing and coastal communities.
  • The exercise is being conducted by the Indian Navy in coordination with the Coast Guard and other ministries entrusted with the task of maritime activities.
  • The exercise is a build up towards the major Theatre Level Readiness Operational Exercise (TROPEX), which the Indian Navy conducts every two years.
  • Sea Vigil and TROPEX together will cover the entire spectrum Maritime Security challenges.

‘Yudh Abhyas 2022’

  • It is an Indo-US military exercise held recently in Uttarakhand’s Auli.
  • It focused on high altitude and extremely cold climate warfare.
  • The previous edition of the exercise was conducted at Joint Base Elmendorf Richardson, Alaska (USA) in October

‘Garuda Shakti’

  • Indian Army Special Forces and Indonesian Special Forces are participating in the eighth edition of the bilateral military exercise ‘Garuda Shakti’ at Karawang, Indonesia that commenced on 21 November 2022. ▪ Defence exercises between India and Bengal
  • Exercise Shakti (Army)
  • Exercise Varuna (Navy)
  • Exercise Garuda (Air Force)


  • An exercise conducted by Indian Navy off Mumbai to evaluate organizational effectiveness in protecting offshore ass

HADR Exercise ‘Samanvay 2022’

  • Indian Air Force (IAF) is conducting the Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Exercise ‘Samanvay 2022’ from 28th to 30th November 2022 at Air Force Station Agra.
  • It is an annual joint exercise involving various stakeholders from India and representatives from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) counties.

Exercise Naseem Al Bahr (13th)

  • It is a bilateral maritime exercise between Indian Navy (IN) and Royal Navy of Oman (RNO).
  • The exercise was conducted from 19th to 24th November 2022 off the coast of Oman and had three phases: harbour phase, sea phase and debrief.
  • The first IN-RNO exercise was conducted in 1993. Year 2022 marks 30 years of IN-RNO bilateral exercises.
  • The Indian Naval Ship (INS) Trikand, INS Sumitra, and Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA) Dornier, participated in the 13th Edition of ‘Naseem Al Bahr’ (Sea Breeze).


▪ The bilateral training exercise “AUSTRA HIND 22” between contingents of the Indian Army and the Australian Army begins at Mahajan Field Firing Ranges in Rajasthan.

“Harimau Shakti -2022”

India – Malaysia joint military Exercise “Harimau Shakti -2022” commenced at Pulai, Kluang, Malaysia on 28th November and will culminate on 12th December 22. INS Mormugao 

▪ It is the second ship of Project 15B stealth destroyers being built at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL). INS Mormugao was delivered to the Indian Navy on 24th November 2022.


▪ ‘Ikshak’ is the third of the four Survey Vessels (Large SVL) Project, being built by GRSE/L&T for the Indian Navy was launched on 26th November 2022 at Kattupalli, Chennai.


India’s Ministry of Defence is the world’s biggest employer

  • According to a report in ‘Statista’ (a Germany-based private organisation), India’s Ministry of Defence is the world’s biggest employer with 2.92 million people, which includes combined active service personnel, reservists and civilian staff.
  • According to a report by UNHCR, 103 million people were forcibly displaced from their homes due to persecution, conflict, violence, human rights violations and events seriously disturbing public order globally in the first half of 2022. It simply meant that one in 77 people on Earth is forcibly displaced.

Adaptation Gap Report 2022

  • Released by : United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP)
  • Title of Report “Too Little, Too Slow: Climate adaptation failure puts world at risk”.
  • The Report finds that global efforts in adaptation planning, financing and implementation are not keeping pace with the growing risks.

Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE+) Plus 2021-22 report on school education in India .

  • Released by : Ministry of Education
  • The Ministry of Education also released the Performance Grading Index (PGI) for 2020-21.

Key Findings

  • According to the report, Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) has improved at primary, upper primary, and higher secondary levels of school education in 2021-22 as compared to 2020-21.
  • GER in higher secondary has made a significant improvement from 53.8 percent in 2020-21 to 6 percent in 202122.
  • In 2021-22, the Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) stood at 26 for primary, 19 for upper primary, 18 for secondary, and 27 for higher secondary showing an improvement since 2018-19.
  • In 2021-22, over 12.29 crore girls are enrolled in primary to higher secondary showing an increase of 8.19 lakh as compared to the enrolment of girls in 2020-21.
  • More than 20,000 schools were closed across the country during 2020-21 while the number of teachers also declined by 1.95% in comparison to the previous year.
  • It pointed out that only 44.85% schools had computer facilities while nearly 34% had internet connection.
  • While only 27% schools have special toilets for children with special needs (CSWN), more than 49% of them have ramps with handrails.
  • Uttar Pradesh has witnessed the highest enrollment of students in government schools and recruitment of teachers.

Image source : Indian Express

What is UDISE+?

  • Developed by: Department of School Education & Literacy in the year 2018-19.
  • Mandate: To collect online data from the schools to overcome the issues related to the erstwhile practice of manual data filling in paper format.
  • Information collected through UDISE+ is utilized for the planning, optimized resource allocation and implementation of various education-related programs and assessments of progress made.
  • Data: UDISE+ collects information on parameters ranging from school, Infrastructure, teachers, enrolments, examination results etc.

– In UDISE+ 2021-22, additional data on important indicators viz., digital library, peer learning, hard spot identification, number of books available in school library etc have been collected for the first time to align with the NEP 2020 initiatives.

Performance Grading Index (PGI) for 2020-21

  • Released by : Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Education
  • Purpose: To provide insights and data-driven mechanisms on the performance and achievements of the success of school education across all States/UTs.
  • Objective: To promote evidence-based policymaking and highlight course correction to ensure quality education for all.
  • Parameters: PGI structure comprises 1000 points across 70 indicators grouped into 2 categories: Outcomes, Governance Management(GM).

–     These categories are further divided into 5 domains, viz., Learning Outcomes (LO), Access (A), Infrastructure & Facilities (IF), Equity (E) & Governance Process (GP).

  • Classification: PGI 2020-21 classified the States/UTs into ten grades : o The highest achievable Grade is Level 1, which is for State/UT scoring more than 950 points out of a total of 1000 points.

o The lowest grade is Level 10 which is for scores below 551.

Findings of the PGI

  • States attained Level 1 : None
  • States attained Level 2: total 7 states o 3 new states i.e. Gujarat, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh have joined Kerala, Punjab, Chandigarh, and Maharashtra in Level 2 with a score of 901 to 950 out of a total score of 1,000.
  • States attained Level 3: o A total of 12 States and UTs, including Delhi, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Odisha, attained Level 3 with a score between 851-900.
  • Note : No State figured in the bottom three grades. Biggest Improvement:
  • Ladakh has seen the biggest improvement by climbing up from Level 10 in 2019-2020 to Level 4 in 2020-2021.
  • Note : According to PGI, the Indian Education System is one of the largest in the world with about 14.9 lakh schools, 95 lakh teachers, and nearly 26.5 crore students.

‘WMO Provisional State of the Global Climate 2022’

  • The report titled ‘WMO Provisional State of the Global Climate 2022’ released at the 27th Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC.

About the report

  • The WMO State of the Global Climate report is produced annually.
  • It provides an authoritative voice on the current state of the climate using key climate indicators and reporting on extreme events and their impacts.
  • The temperature figures used in the provisional 2022 report are until the end of September. The final version will be issued in April 2023

Key highlights of the report

  • Global mean temperature in 2022
  • The global mean temperature in 2022 is currently estimated to be about 1. 15 (1. 02 to 1. 28)0C above the preindustrial level (1850-1900 average).
  • This makes it difficult to meet the goal of keeping warming within 1. 50C goal by the end of the century.
  • Eight warmest years on record
  • Fuelled by ever-rising greenhouse gas concentrations and accumulated heat, the past eight years (2015-22) are on track to be the eight warmest on record.
  • The report says that the year 2022 will possibly be the fifth or sixth warmest year.
  • The warmest year on record so far has been 2016, when the global mean temperatures were measured to be about 1.28 degree Celsius higher than pre-industrial times.
  • Vulnerable population most affected
  • The report flagged how global warming made every heatwave more intense and life-threatening especially for vulnerable populations.
  • An upsurge in climate change impacts can be seen as sea level rise accelerates, European glaciermelt shatters records and extreme weather causes devastation.
  • Increase in Concentration of Greenhouse Gases:
  • The concentrations of three main greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and Nitrous oxide (NO2), were all at record highs in 2021.
  • The emissions of methane, which is 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide in causing global warming, in fact, increased at the fastest pace ever.
  • At the climate change conference in Glasgow, countries had pledged to cut global methane emissions by at least 30% by the year 2030. ▪ Impact of climate change
  • The rate of sea level rise has doubled since 1993. It has risen by 10mm since January 2020 to a new record high this year.
  • The past two and a half years alone account for 10% of the overall rise in sea level.
  • The impact of rise in temperature can also be seen in:
  • record breaking rain in July and August that led to flooding in Pakistan;
  • large parts of Europe sweltered in repeated episodes of extreme heat;
  • UK saw a new national record in July, when the temperature topped more than 400C for the first time. What are the Steps taken to tackle Climate change?


  • NAPCCC: To counter the emerging threats from climate change, India released its National Action Plan to Combat Climate Change (NAPCC). It has 8 sub missions including National Solar Mission, National Water Mission etc.
  • India Cooling Action Plan: It provides an integrated approach towards cooling and related areas including reduction in the cooling demand. This would help reduce emissions thereby combating global warming.


  • Paris Agreement (December 2015): The Paris Agreement, often referred to as the Paris Accords or the Paris Climate Accords, is an international treaty on climate change. Adopted in 2015, the agreement covers climate change mitigation, adaptation, and finance. It seeks to keep the rise in global temperatures “well below” 2°C from preindustrial times, while “pursuing efforts” to limit it to 1.5°C.
  • UN SDGs: These are 17 broad goals for achieving sustainable development in the society. Amongst them Goal 13 exclusively focuses on tackling climate change.
  • Glasgow Pact : It was finally adopted by 197 parties in 2021 during the COP26 negotiations. It has emphasized that stronger action in the current decade was most critical for achieving the 1.5-degree target.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

  • It is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 193 Member States and Territories (including India) .
  • It was established by the ratification of the WMO Convention in 1950.
  • In 1951, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences a year later.
  • Note : It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was established after the 1873 Vienna International Meteorological Congress.
  • The UN Economic and Social Council is the parent organization of WMO. ▪ WMO is headquartered at Geneva.

‘Global Vaccine Market Report 2022’

  • Released by : World Health Organisation (WHO)
  • This is the first report to capture the implications of Covid-19 for vaccine markets highlighting the issue of vaccine inequity.

Climate Change Performance Index  2023

  • Released by: German Watch, New Climate Institute and Climate Action Network International based in Germany. (it is published since 2005)
  • Aim: To enhance transparency in international climate politics and enable comparison of climate protection efforts and progress made by individual countries.
  • Parameters: CCPI assesses each country’s performance in four categories: GHG Emissions (40% of the overall ranking), Renewable Energy (20%), Energy Use (20%) and Climate Policy (20%).
  • key findings:
  • Ranking: India has been ranked 8th amongst a group of 59 countries and the European Union. It has risen two spots since last year.
  • Denmark, Sweden, Chile and Morocco were the only four small countries that were ranked above India as 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th respectively. The first, second and third ranks were not awarded to any country.
  • In effect, therefore, India’s rank is the best among all large economies.
  • Observations: India earned a high rating in the GHG Emissions and Energy Use categories, while a medium for Climate Policy and Renewable Energy.
  • The aggressive policies of India towards rapid deployment of renewables and robust framework for energy efficiency programs have shown considerable impact.
  • As per the Index, India is on track to meet its 2030 emissions targets (compatible with a well-below- 2°C scenario).
  • Significance: The ranking given by CCPI places India as the only G-20 country in the top 10 ranks.
  • India will now be assuming G-20 Presidency, and it will be an opportune time to show the world about its climate mitigation policies. Such as the deployment of renewable sources of energy and other energy transition programmes.

World BankReport

  • Recently, the report, titled “Financing India’s Urban Infrastructure Needs: Constraints to Commercial Financing and Prospects for Policy Action” was released by the World bank.
  • According to this report, India will need to invest USD 840 billion over the next 15 years into urban infrastructure if it is to effectively meet the needs of its fast-growing urban population. By 2036, 600 million people will be living in urban cities in India, representing 40% of the population.

3 Indian women feature in 2022 Asia’s Power Businesswomen List

  • The first Indian women named on the list is Ghazal Alagh, co-founder and chief innovation officer of Honasa Consumer, Mamaearth’s parent firm.
  • Second Indian businesswoman on the list is Soma Mondal, chairperson of Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL), the first to chair the state-run company.
  • Namita Thapar, executive director at India business of Emcure Pharma, is the third Indian to be named of Forbes Asia’s Power Businesswomen 2022 list.

SCHEMES and Programmes in News 

‘Football4Schools’ initiative 

  • Shri Dharmendra Pradhan (Union Education and Skill Development & Entrepreneurial Minister ) signed an MoU with FIFA and the All India Football Federation for the ‘Football4Schools’ initiative in India.
  • Gianni Infantino (FIFA President) and Mr. Kalyan Chaubey (President of All India Football Federation ) signed MoU on behalf of the respective organizations.
  • Note : Sports has been given a place of pride in National Educational Policy (NEP) 2020 and the Football4Schools program espouses the spirit of NEP2020.
  • Note : FIFA is a non-profit organization founded in 1904. It now has 211 member nations with headquarter in Zurich, Switzerland.

IIPDF Scheme

  • Recently, the Department of Economic Affairs(DEA), has notified India Infrastructure Project Development Fund Scheme(IIPDF Scheme).

About India Infrastructure Project Development Fund Scheme (IIPDF Scheme)

  • Setup in: 2007
  • Nodal Ministry: Department of Economic Affairs(DEA), Ministry of Finance
  • Type: It is a Central Sector Scheme with total outlay of Rs 150 crore for a period of three years from 2022-23 to 2024-25.
  • Aim: To aid the development of quality PPP projects by providing necessary funding support to the Project Sponsoring Authorities(PSA) both in the Central and State Governments.
  • Funding: The IIPDF will contribute upto 75% of the project development expenses to the Sponsoring Authority as an interest-free loan. The balance of 25% will be co-funded by the Sponsoring Authority.
  • Significance: The fund will help the sponsoring authority to cover a portion of the PPP transaction costs thereby reducing the impact of costs related to procurement on their budgets.

Make II Projects

  • Recently, the Indian Army has approved five Project Sanction Orders (PSOs) for development of niche technology by the Indian industry under Make-II route of defence procurement (providing further impetus to Atma Nirbhaarta).
  • The projects include High Frequency Man Packed Software Defined Radios (HFSDR), drone kill systems, Infantry Training Weapon Simulator (IWTS), Medium Range Precision Kill Systems (MRPKS) and 155mm Terminally Guided Munitions (TGM). About
  • The provision of ‘Make’ category of capital acquisition in Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) is a vital pillar for realising the vision behind the ‘Make in India’ initiative of the Government, by fostering indigenous capabilities through design & development of required defence equipment/product/systems or upgrades/ sub-systems/components /parts by both public and private sector industry/organisation in a faster time frame.

‘Make’ Procedure has following two sub-categories:

  • Make-I (Government Funded): Projects under ‘Make-I’ sub-category will involve Government funding of 90%, released in a phased manner and based on the progress of the scheme, as per terms agreed between MoD and the vendor.
  • Make-II (Industry Funded): Projects under ‘Make-II’ category will involve prototype development of equipment/ system/ platform or their upgrades or their subsystems/ sub-assembly/assemblies/ components, primarily for import substitution/innovative solutions, for which no Government funding will be provided for prototype development purposes.

Ganga Utsav-2022

  • Recently, the Ministry of Jal Shakti by the collaboration of The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) has organized Ganga Utsav- The River Festivals 2022.
  • NMCG is the implementation wing of National Ganga Council, set up in 2016, which replaced the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NRGBA).

Initiatives towards Clean Ganga

  • A lot of initiatives were taken before the establishment of the Clean Ganga Mission that targeted towards the reduction of pollution and cleaning of the river Ganga. Some of the major initiatives taken by the Government of India before the implementation of this mission are discussed below:
  • Ganga Action Plan: It was announced in 1985 by the Ministry of Environment & Forests. This was the first River Action Plan that was introduced for the improvement of water quality through interception, diversion and treatment of domestic sewage. The plan aimed in preventing the entry of toxic and industrial chemical wastes to the river.
  • National River Conservation Plan: This conservation plan was developed as an extension for the Ganga Action Plan with an aim to cover all the major rivers of India.
  • National River Ganga Basin Authority (NRGBA): Controlled by the Prime Minister of India, the National River Ganga Basin Authority was formed under Section-3 of the Environment Protection Act, 1986 by the Central

Government in 2009. It declared the Ganga as ‘the National River’ of India.

  • A Government clean-up campaign was started in 2010 to prevent the entry of untreated municipal sewage or industrial runoff into the river.
  • Clean Ganga Fund: In 2014, it was formed for cleaning up of the Ganga, setting up of waste treatment plants and conservation of biotic diversity of the river.
  • Bhuvan-Ganga Web App: It ensures the involvement of the public in the monitoring of pollution entering into the river Ganga.
  • Ban on Waste Disposal: In 2017, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) banned the disposal of any waste in the Ganga.

Digital Shakti 4.0

  • The National Commission for Women (NCW) has recently launched the fourth phase of the Digital Shakti Campaign. NCW launched it in collaboration with CyberPeace Foundation and Meta.
  • About Digital Shakti : Digital Shakti started in June 2018 to help women across the nation to raise the awareness level on the digital front. It is helping women in reporting & redressal mechanisms, data privacy and usage of technology for their benefits.
  • The third phase of the program was started in March 2021 with the launch at Leh.
  • Digital Shakti 4.0: Digital Shakti 4.0 is focused on making women digitally skilled and aware to stand up against any illegal/inappropriate activity online. It aims to ensure safe cyber spaces for women.

Rozgar Mela

  • The Prime Minister has launched the Rozgar Mela and a distributed over 71,000 appointment letters to new recruits via video conferencing.
  • About Rozgar Mela : It is a recruitment drive to hire 10 lakh personnel. Under this recruitment drive, all Ministries and Departments are working towards filling up existing vacancies against sanctioned posts in Mission Mode. The new recruits will join 38 Ministries/Departments of the Government of India. The appointees will join the government at various levels viz. Group – A, Group – B (Gazetted), Group – B (Non-Gazetted) and Group – C.   The posts on which appointments are being made include Central Armed Force Personnel, Sub Inspector, Constable, and Income Tax Inspectors among others. 

Karmayogi Prarambh Module

  • The Karmayogi Prarambh module is an initiative under the Mission Karmayogi. It is an online orientation course for the new recruits of various government departments. It will help new government employees to understand the code of conduct required to adapt to the new role.
  • Ethics in the workplace, integrity, human resource policies and other benefits, allowances, etc., are some of the topics focused on by the module.
  • The objective of this online orientation programme is to keep the essence of civil service within the people of the country.
  • About Mission Karmayogi : Mission Karmayogi – National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (NPCSCB) was launched on September 20, 2020, to reform Indian bureaucracy at the individual, institutional and process levels for enhance public service delivery. It aims to upgrade the post-recruitment training mechanism of government officers and employees at all levels. This initiative is governed by Prime Minister’s Human Resource Council, which includes chief ministers, union cabinet ministers and experts.

MAARG Portal

  • The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade DPIIT) under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry has launched a call for startup applications for registration on the MAARG portal.

About MAARG Portal

  • Full-Form: MAARG stands for Mentorship, Advisory, Assistance, Resilience and Growth.
  • Purpose: It is a one-stop platform to facilitate mentorship for startups across diverse sectors, functions, stages, geographies, and backgrounds.
  • Through this portal, startups can connect with academicians, industry experts, successful founders, seasoned investors and other experts from across the globe, through artificial intelligence(AI)-based matchmaking to get personalized guidance on growth and strategy.
  • Key Features of the Portal: Customizable mentorship programs for ecosystem enablers, mobile-friendly user interface, recognition for contributing mentors, video and audio call options, etc.

“Nai Chetna-Pahal Badlav Ki”

  • Recently, the Ministry of Urban Development launches the “Nai Chetna-Pahal Badlav Ki”- A Community-led National Campaign Against Gender-Based Discrimination.


Issue of ‘Senna spectabilis’ in Mudumalai Tiger Reserve

  • Invasive weeds such as Senna spectabilis and Lantana camara, as well as wattle, had taken over vast swathes of the Nilgiris.
  • Senna spectabilis, an invasive tree, has taken over between 800 and 1,200 hectares of the buffer zones of the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve(MTR) in the picturesque Nilgiris hill district.
  • Senna spectabilis was introduced in India as an ornamental species and for use as firewood from South and Central America. The plant has become an invasive alien species in parts of Africa, India and other countries.
  • Issues with Senna spectabilis : The thick foliage of the tree arrests the growth of other indigenous tree and grass species. Hence, it causes food shortages for the wildlife population, especially herbivores. It also adversely affects the germination and growth of native species. Mudumalai Tiger Reserve
  • Mudumalai Tiger Reserve is located in the Nilgiris District of Tamil Nadu state spread over 321 sq. km at the trijunction of three states, viz, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It forms part of the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve (the first Biosphere Reserve in India, declared in 1986).
  • The reserve has tall grasses, commonly referred to as “Elephant Grass”, Bamboo of the giant variety, and valuable timber species like Teak, Rosewood etc.
  • Note : 8% of bird species found in India are recorded in Mudumalai. 

Pakhro tiger safari project

  • Over 6,000 trees were illegally cut for the proposed Pakhro tiger safari project in Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR), according to a report of the Forest Survey of India (FSI).
  • The FSI has come up with an observation that the area cleared under CTR is estimated as 16.21 hectare (hac) for the Safari Project.
  • Pakhro tiger safari will be spread over an area of 106 hectares, when completed, it would have been the State’s first tiger safari that would have tigers in enclosures to ensure “100% sighting”.
  • The National Green Tribunal (NGT) recently told the forest officials of Uttarakhand that it would direct the Union government to form a committee to initiate an investigation into “illegal tree cutting” in Jim Corbett National Park.

Jim Corbett National Park:

  • Jim Corbett National Park is a part of the larger Corbett Tiger Reserve ▪ It is located in Nainital district of Uttarakhand.
  • The park encompasses the Patli Dun valley formed by the Ramganga river.
  • The national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger.
  • It is named after Jim Corbett who played a key role in its establishment.
  • Ramganga, Sonanadi, Mandal, Palain and Kosi are the major rivers flowing through the Reserve.
  • Key facts:
  • It is the oldest national park in India.
  • It was the first area to come under the Project Tiger initiative in 1973. 

Biosphere Reserves • Every year November 3 will be celebrated as ‘The International Day for Biosphere Reserves’ (beginning 2022).

  • The concept of Biosphere Reserves was launched in 1971 as a, part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)’s ‘Man and Biosphere Programme’. Biosphere reserves are the protected areas meant for the conservation of plants and animals. It includes terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems. Biosphere reserves are nominated by national governments and remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located.
  • A Biosphere Reserve has three main zones: Core area, Buffer zones, and Transition area.
  • Biosphere Reserves are designated under the intergovernmental MAB Programme by the Director-General of UNESCO following the decisions of the MAB International Coordinating Council (MAB ICC).

In India:

  • India at present has 18 notified biosphere reserves spanning 60,000 sq km.
  • The first biosphere reserve in India – Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (Est. 1986), stretching over Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
  • The largest biosphere reserve : the Gulf of Kachchh (Gujarat)
  • The smallest biosphere reserve : Dibru-Saikhowa (Assam).
  • Other bigger biosphere reserves are the Gulf of Mannar (Tamil Nadu), Sunderbans (West Bengal), and Cold Desert (Himachal Pradesh).
Out of 18, total 12 biosphere reserves of India  have been recognized internationally under Man and Biosphere Reserve program of UNESCO, which are as follows :

  1. Nilgiri (First to be included in year 2000)
  2. Gulf of Mannar
  3. Sunderban
  4. Nanda Devi
  5. Nokrek
  6. Pachmarhi
  7. Similipal
  8. Achanakmar – Amarkantak
  9. Great Nicobar
  10. Agasthyamala
  11. Khangchendzonga (included in 2018)
  12. Panna National Park (included in 2020.

Mauna Loa

  • The recent incidents of ground shaking and swelling at Mauna Loa indicating that the largest active volcano in the world could erupt in the near future.
  • Mauna Loa is one of five volcanoes that together make up the Big Island of Hawaii, which is the southernmost island in the Hawaiian archipelago. Mauna Loa last erupted 38 years ago. In written history, dating to 1843, it’s erupted 33 times.
  • It’s not the tallest (that title goes to Mauna Kea) but it’s the largest and makes up about half of the island’s land mass.
  • It sits immediately north of Kilauea volcano, which is currently erupting from its summit crater. Kilauea is wellknown for a 2018 eruption that destroyed 700 homes and sent rivers of lava spreading across farms and into the ocean.
  • Note : Barren Island is India’s only active volcano which is located in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Climate Change : a threat to UNESCO World Heritage Glaciers

  • According to a study conducted by the UN body, a third of the glaciers on the UNESCO World Heritage list are under threat, regardless of efforts to limit temperature increases.
  • The UNESCO study, in partnership with the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), showed that these glaciers have been retreating at an accelerated rate since 2000 due to CO2 emissions, which are warming temperatures.
  • They are currently losing 58 billion tonne of ice every year — equivalent to the combined annual water use of France and Spain — and are responsible for nearly 5% of observed global sea level rise.
  • This study highlights the urgent need to cut greenhouse gas emissions and invest in nature-based solutions, which can help mitigate climate change.
  • As many as 50 UNESCO World Heritage sites are home to glaciers, representing almost 10% of the Earth’s total glacierised area.
  • The study said it was still possible to save the other two-thirds if the rise in global temperature did not exceed 5°C compared to the pre-industrial era.
  • In addition to drastically reduced carbon emissions, the UNESCO is advocating for the creation of a new international fund for glacier monitoring and preservation. Such a fund would support comprehensive research, promote exchange networks between all stakeholders and implement early warning and disaster risk reduction measures, the study said.
  • Significance of Glaciers : Half of humanity depends directly or indirectly on glaciers as their water source for domestic use, agriculture, and power. Glaciers are also pillars of biodiversity, feeding many ecosystems.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites:

  • A World Heritage Site (WHS) is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the UNESCO under the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972. These sites are designated by UNESCO for having cultural, historical, scientific or other forms of significance.
  • The sites, classified as cultural, natural and mixed (meeting both cultural and natural criteria) heritage around the world, are considered to be of outstanding value to humanity.
  • There are around 1,100 UNESCO listed sites across its 167 member countries.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India:

  • India is home to a total of 3691 monuments and sites. Of these 40 are designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
  • Including places like the Taj Mahal, Ajanta Caves and Ellora Caves. World Heritage Sites also include natural sites like the Kaziranga National Park in Assam.
  • Harappan city of Dholavira in Gujarat as India’s 40th world heritage site.
  • Ramappa Temple (Telangana) was India’s 39th World Heritage Site.
  • Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim has been inscribed as India’s first and the only “Mixed World Heritage Site”.
  • In 2022, the Union Ministry of Culture nominated Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysalas temples for consideration as a World Heritage site for the year 2022-2023.

Indian Black Honeybee (Apis karinjodian)

  • A new species of endemic honeybee has been discovered in the Western Ghats.
  • The new species has been named Apis karinjodian and given the common name Indian black honeybee. The new find has increased the species of honeybees in the world to 11.
  • It is after a gap of more than 200 years that a new species of honeybee has been spotted in the Western Ghats. The last honeybee described from India was Apis indica in 1798 by Fabricius. Although Fabricius named the Indian bee Apis indica, it was not considered a valid species till now.
  • The distribution of Apis karinjodian ranges from the central Western Ghats and Nilgiris to the southern Western Ghats, covering the States of Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

What are the initiatives takes by Indian Govt to boost Honey production ?

  • Sweet Revolution’ is an ambitious initiative of the Government of India for promoting apiculture, popularly known as ‘beekeeping’.
  • India is the sixth major natural honey exporting country.
  • To provide a booster shot to Sweet Revolution, the government launched the National Beekeeping and Honey Mission in 2020 (under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare), which aims to establish 5 big regional and 100 small honey and other Bee Products testing laboratories. Out of the total target, 3 world class state-of-the-art laboratories have been setup, whereas 25 small laboratories are in the process of being set up.
  • India is also providing assistance to the beekeepers for setting up of Processing Units.
  • National Bee Board (NBB), which is a registered society under Societies Registration Act XXI of 1860 has also been designated as a Nodal Agency for promotion of scientific beekeeping in the country.
  • Note : World Bee Day is celebrated annually on 20th May. The day marks the birth anniversary of Anton Janša, a pioneer of modern apiculture.

‘Pseudohelice Annamalai’ : new species of Estuarine Crab

  • Recently, researchers have discovered a new species of Estuarine Crab at the Mangroves of Parangipettai near the Vellar River estuary (an area where river meets the ocean) in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu.
  • The species has been named ‘Pseudohelice Annamalai’ in recognition of Annamalai University’s 100 years of service in education and research.


  • The act of giving the impression that a company’s products are ecologically friendly is known as “greenwashing.” Greenwashing is the practice of making unfounded claims that lead consumers to believe that a company’s products are more environmentally friendly or have a bigger positive influence on the environment than they actually do.
  • Also known as “green sheen,” greenwashing is an attempt to capitalize on the growing demand for environmentally sound products.
  • ‘Greenwashing’ is a play on the word ‘whitewashing’ which means misleading people with the use of facts, half-truths, and fiction to conceal realities.
  • Origin of the term : American Environmentalist Jay Westerveld coined the term “greenwashing” in 1986, to criticize the “save the towel” movement in hotels, which had little impact other than saving hotels money in laundry costs. In 1999, ‘greenwashing’ was officially included in the Oxford English Dictionary.
  • Essentially, it consists of two behaviours
    • Suppress negative information regarding a product/activity/policy’s environmental performance; o Expose positive information about the environmental performance. o The term is commonly used to refer to deceptive marketing and advertising tactics used by some corporate industries to deceive stakeholders into believing that a particular product is environmentally friendly.

Examples of Greenwashing

  • Volkswagen scandal 2015: In Volkswagen scandal, the German car company was found to have been cheating in emissions testing of its claimed green diesel vehicles. This was a case of greenwashing.
  • Palm oil company claims: Multinational palm oil company of Indonesia had claimed that palm oil plantation provide home to flora and fauna. In reality, palm oil plantations contribute to deforestation.
  • Most global companies including international giants such as Nestle, Unilever, Amazon, Ikea, and Coca Cola have been accused of greenwashing. Challenges to Greenwashing:
  • There is no clear methodology to verify if a product or investment is actually climate-friendly.
  • Third-party organizations involved in studying climate-friendliness of project do not have expertise to provide clear data.
  • Way Forward: There has to be authorized entities that monitor/verify claims made by private companies or government about their climate-friendly actions. This will ensure that claims are made only after due study.

Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC)

  • During the COP27 climate summit in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, the UAE and Indonesia announced the launching of “Mangrove Alliance for Climate” to scale up and accelerate the conservation and restoration of the mangrove forests.
  • MAC includes UAE, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Japan, and Spain. It seeks to educate and spread awareness worldwide on the role of mangroves in curbing global warming and its potential as a solution for climate change. However, the intergovernmental alliance works on a voluntary basis which means that there are no real checks and balances to hold members accountable. Instead, the parties will decide their own commitments and deadlines regarding planting and restoring mangroves. The members will also share expertise and support each other in researching, managing and protecting coastal areas.

Methane Alert and Response System (MARS)

  • The Methane Alert and Response System (MARS) was launched at the 27th Conference of Parties (COP27) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.
  • MARS is a new satellite-based system will now help governments detect methane emissions and tackle them. It has been set up as part of the UNEP International Methane Emissions Observatory (IMEO) strategy to get policy-relevant data into the right hands for emissions mitigation.

How will the MARS work?

  • MARS will use data from global mapping satellites to identify very large methane plumes and methane hot spots and data from high-resolution satellites to then attribute the emissions to a specific source.
  • UNEP will then notify governments and companies about the emissions, either directly or through partners, so that the responsible entity can take appropriate action.
  • If requested, MARS partners will provide technical or advisory services such as help in assessing mitigation opportunities.
  • UNEP will continue to monitor the event location and make the data and analysis available to the public between 45 and 75 days after detection.

Why target only Methane related emissions?

  • Methane is the second-most common of the six major greenhouse gases but is far more dangerous than carbon dioxide in its potential to cause global warming.
  • It accounts for about 17% of the current global greenhouse gas emissions. It is also blamed for having caused at least 25 to 30% of temperature rise since the pre-industrial times.
  • However, unlike carbon dioxide, methane is largely a sectoral gas and there are only a few sources of emission. It is possible, therefore, to cut down on methane emissions without having a widespread impact on the economy.
  • Moreover, because its global warming potential is about 80 times that of carbon dioxide, a reduction in methane emissions also brings big benefits in a short time.

Leadership for Industry Transition (LeadIT) Summit

  • Hosted by: India and Sweden hosted the Leadership for Industry Transition (LeadIT) Summit, on the sidelines of COP27 at Sharm El Sheikh in Egypt. About LeadIT
  • The LeadIT initiative lays specific focus on hard to abate sectors that are key stakeholders in the global climate action and require specific interventions.
  • It gathers countries and companies that are committed to action to achieve the Paris Agreement.
  • It was launched by the governments of Sweden and India at the UN Climate Action Summit in 2019 and is supported by the World Economic Forum.
  • LeadIT members subscribe to the notion that energy-intensive industries can and must progress on low-carbon pathways, aiming to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.
  • Members: The total membership of LeadIT is 37 including countries and companies together. Japan and South Africa, the latest members of the initiative.

Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy(LT-LEDS)

  • India has submitted its Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy(LT-LEDS) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at COP 27.
  • The LT-LEDS is a commitment document which every signatory to the Paris Agreement (2015) is obliged to make by So far, only 57 countries (including India) have submitted their document.
  • Under the Paris agreement, countries must explain how they will transition their economies beyond achieving nearterm Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) targets and work towards the larger climate objective of cutting emissions by 45% by 2030 and achieve net zero around 2050.
  • The strategy is based on four key considerations: 1) India has contributed little to global warming despite being home to a sixth of the world’s population, 2) India has significant energy needs for development, 3) India is committed to pursuing low-carbon strategies for development and 4) India needs to build climate resilience.

What are the salient features of the strategy?

  • Transition from fossil fuels: The transition from fossil fuels will be undertaken in a just, smooth, sustainable and allinclusive manner.
  • Transportation sector: Increased use of biofuels, especially ethanol blending in petrol, the drive to increase electric vehicle penetration and the increased use of green hydrogen fuel is expected to drive the low carbon development of the transport sector.
  • Sustainable Urbanization: Future sustainable and climate-resilient urban development will be driven by smart city initiatives, integrated planning of cities, effective green building codes and rapid developments in innovative solid and liquid waste management.
  • Industrial Sector: India’s industrial sector will continue on a strong growth path in the perspective of ‘Atma Nirbhar Bharat’ and ‘Make in India’. The focus will be on improving energy efficiency by initiatives such as Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) scheme, high levels of electrification, enhancing material efficiency and recycling leading to the expansion of the circular economy.
  • Forest Cover: India has a strong record of enhancing forest and tree cover in the last three decades alongside high economic growth.

– India’s forest fire incidence is well below global levels, while its forest and tree cover are a net sink absorbing 15% of CO2 emissions in 2016. India is on track to fulfilling its NDC commitment of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of additional carbon sequestration in forest and tree cover by 2030.

  • Transition to low-carbon development: The transition to the low carbon development pathway will entail several costs pertaining to the development of new technologies, new infrastructure, and other transaction costs. The provision of climate finance by developed countries will play a very significant role in this.

What is Net Zero Target?

  • It is referred to as carbon neutrality, which does not mean that a country would bring down its emissions to zero. Rather, it is a state in which a country’s emissions are compensated by the absorption and removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.
  • Further, absorption of the emissions can be increased by creating more carbon sinks such as forests.
  • While the removal of gases from the atmosphere requires futuristic technologies such as carbon capture and storage.
  • More than 70 countries have promised to become Net Zero by the middle of the century i.e., by 2050.
  • India has promised to cut its emissions to net zero by 2070 at the conference of parties-26(COP) summit.

Carbon Border Tax

  • The BASIC (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) countries’ have recently opposed the Carbon Border Taxes proposed by the European Union (EU) at 27th edition of the Conference of Parties (COP) in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.
  • A carbon border adjustment tax is a duty on imports based on the amount of carbon emissions resulting from the production of the product in question. As a price on carbon, it discourages emissions. The carbon border tax involves imposing an import duty on a product manufactured in a country with more lax climate rules than the one buying it.
  • European Union’s stand: The European Union (EU) has proposed a policy — called the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism — to tax products such as cement and steel, that are extremely carbon intensive, with effect from 2026. EU claimed that the tax will benefit the environment and provide a level playing field to companies, those opposing it call the tax unfair and protectionist.
  • BASIC group’s stand: They say it puts the burden of climate compliance on developing countries, when historically, they have done much less to pollute the environment and yet are often more vulnerable to effects of climate change.
  • ‘Carbon leakage’: Some developed nations, in efforts to cut emissions, impose high costs on carbon-intensive businesses in their own countries. Businesses can potentially sidestep this simply by moving production to a country with less stringent rules, a practice called carbon leakage.
  • Impact on India: The EU is India’s third largest trading partner. By increasing the prices of Indian-made goods in the EU, this tax would make Indian goods less attractive for buyers and could shrink demand.
  • The tax would create serious near-term challenges for companies with larger greenhouse gas footprint.
  • Protectionist Policy: The policy can also be regarded as a disguised form of protectionism. o Protectionism refers to government policies that restrict international trade to help domestic industries. Such policies are usually implemented with the goal of improving economic activity within a domestic economy.

Way Forward

  • India is not the target of this policy of the EU, the target is Russia, China and Turkey which are large emitters of carbon and major exporters of steel and aluminium to the EU. There is little reason for India to be at the forefront of the opposition. It should rather talk directly to the EU and bilaterally settle the issue.
  • A mechanism like Carbon Border Tax for charging imported goods at borders may spur adoption of cleaner technologies. But if it happens without adequate assistance for newer technologies and finance, it would rather become disadvantageous for the developing countries.
  • As far as India is concerned, it must assess the advantages and disadvantages that it is likely to face with the imposition of this tax and talk to the EU with a bilateral approach.

‘Loss and Damages’ fund

  • The countries at the COP27 in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt have decided to establish a ‘Loss and Damages’ fund.
  • The fund will be aimed at helping developing countries that are “particularly vulnerable” to the effects of climate change.
  • The fund would initially draw on contributions from developed countries and other private and public sources such as international financial institutions.
  • History : The idea of a “loss and damage” fund (LDF) was first floated in 1991. Vanuatu, a low-lying island nation in the Pacific, suggested the creation of an insurance scheme, under the auspices of the UN, to help pay for the consequences of rising sea levels. For thirty years such demands were left ignored by the UN. But recently Scotland promised £2m ($2.4m) to the cause.

What is the issue with this fund?

  • Crucial questions such as who will manage this fund, whether contributions are expected from large developing countries and what the fair share of contributors will be — have been left to a “transitional committee” that will make recommendations at the next COP to be held in the UAE.

Will India be a donor to the Loss and Damage fund?

Developed countries had been asking to expand the donor base of the loss and damage fund by including big economies like India and China as contributors to the fund.

  • However, India during the discussions made its stand clear that though the country has voluntarily been doing its bit to help vulnerable countries through a different mechanism, it will not be mandatorily contributing to the proposed fund.
  • On the question of whether India would be one of the beneficiaries of the fund as it’s primarily meant for most vulnerable countries, India argued that the country too has many vulnerable areas.

‘Ambition on Melting Ice(AMI) on Sea-level Rise and Mountain Water Resources’

  • At COP 27, a broad coalition of 18 governments — led by the two polar and mountain nations of Chile and Iceland — joined together to create a new high-level group ‘Ambition on Melting Ice(AMI) on Sea-level Rise and Mountain Water Resources’.
  • Aim of AMI: To ensure impacts of cryosphere loss are understood by political leaders and the public, and not only within the mountain and polar regions but throughout the planet.
  • Founding Members of the AMI Group: Chile, Iceland, Peru, Czech Republic, Nepal, Finland, Senegal, Kyrgyz Republic, Samoa, Georgia, Switzerland, New Zealand, Monaco, Vanuatu, Sweden, Tanzania, Liberia, Norway and Mexico.

Declaration issued by this group

  • Climate change has already caused dramatic changes in the global cryosphere, and Earth’s snow and ice regions.
  • Lives and livelihoods are threatened by, and some are already lost from, these changes. Indigenous peoples in both the Arctic and mountain regions have been among the earliest affected.
  • These consequences will occur both within and far beyond those in polar and mountain regions.
  • Hence, protecting the cryosphere through vigorous climate action is not a matter for mountain and polar nations alone. It is a matter of urgent global concern because the greatest impacts on human communities lie well outside these regions.
  • Suggestion given by this group: Rapid and emergency-scale decreases in global CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, across all sectors, to keep alive the possibility of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C, is the world’s best option to slow progressive cryosphere loss and the resulting widespread global catastrophes.

About Cryosphere

  • The cryosphere is the part of the Earth’s climate system that includes solid precipitation, snow, sea ice, lake and river ice, icebergs, glaciers and ice caps, ice sheets, ice shelves, permafrost, and seasonally frozen ground. The term “cryosphere” traces its origins to the Greek word ‘kryos’ for frost or ice cold.
  • The cryosphere extends globally, existing seasonally or perennially at most latitudes, not just in the Arctic, Antarctic, and mountain regions, and in approximately one hundred countries. The largest continental ice sheets are found in

Antarctica. Approximately 70% of the Earth’s freshwater exists as snow or ice. Impacts of Cryosphere on Global Climate:

  • Albedo: Snow and ice have high albedo. They reflect most of the light without being absorbed and helps in cooling of the earth. Thus, presence or absence of snow and ice affects the heating and cooling of Earth’s surface. This influences the entire planet’s energy balance.
  • Feedback Loop: Melting of ice reduces the reflective surface, and, the ocean and land are darker in color, which absorb more solar radiation, and then release the heat to the atmosphere. This causes more warming and so more ice melts. This is known as a feedback loop.
  • Permafrost: Permafrost is potentially a major source of methane and carbon dioxide. The permafrost of the polar region has trapped tons of carbon inside its soil. Permafrost contains about 1,400 to 1,600 billion tons of carbon.
  • In terms of carbon budgets, in the 1.5°C climate warming scenario, the melting of permafrost is estimated to result in a range of 150–200 Global GHG (GtCO2eq) emissions, while at 2+°C degrees would result in at about 220–300 Gt CO2-eq by 2100, comparable to the total emissions of countries like Canada or the entire EU.
  • Melting of Cryosphere: Melting of cryosphere affects the volume of water in oceans. Any changes in the water cycle, affects global energy / heat budget, and thereby global climate.
  • The emission of GHGs and changes in albedo from a melting Arctic are projected to more than double the Arctic’s contribution to global warming by 2100.

Amazon rainforests under threat

  • According to a new report ‘Living Amazon Report’ 2022 by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), some 35% of the Amazon rainforest is either totally lost or highly degraded.
  • The report was released at the 27th Conference of Parties (COP27) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt.
  • Vast tracts of the Amazon rainforest, which serve as carbon sinks and the planet’s lungs, are in crisis.
  • Some 35% of the rainforest is either totally lost or highly degraded, while another 18% have been converted for other purposes.
  • Amazon forests are threatened due to deforestation, fires and degradation.

Surface water has been lost and rivers are increasingly disconnected and polluted.

  • This immense pressure will irreversibly damage the Amazon and the planet in general very shortly.
  • Amazon forests : Comprising about 40% of Brazil’s total area, it is bounded by the Guiana Highlands to the north, the Andes Mountains to the west, the Brazilian central plateau to the south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.

‘Muli’  Bamboo (Melocanna baccifera)

  • A study was conducted on Melocanna baccifera, a tropical bamboo species that has long fascinated researchers for its association with the occurrence of ‘bamboo death’ ‘rat floods’ and famines in northeast India.
  • Muli Bamboo is the largest fruit-producing bamboo and is native to the northeast India-Myanmar region. It flowers almost fully synchronically every 48 years. This flowering results in the phenomenon known as Mautam. (‘Mautam’ means ‘Bamboo death’ in Mizo).

How is Muli Bamboo associated with famines in northeast India?

  • During its gregarious flowering, the Melocanna baccifera produces large fruits which draw animal visitors/predator Of these, black rats greatly relish the fleshy, berry-like fruit. During this period, they also multiply rapidly, a phenomenon dubbed as ‘rat flood.’ Once the fruits are gone, they start devouring standing crops, causing famines that have claimed thousands of human lives.

Why do rats get attracted to the fruits produced by Melocanna baccifera?

  • Earlier, it was presumed that ‘high protein in fruits/seeds’ was attracting the rats.
  • However, a study in 2016 has found that the fruit actually contains very little protein. The predation is mainly due to the high content of sugar. 

CoP19 to theCITES: Panama City

  • The 19th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (CoP19) to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is being held at Panama City.
  • CoP19 is also known as the World Wildlife Conference.

What are the Highlights of the Conference?

  • 52 proposals have been put forward that would affect the regulations on international trade for: sharks, reptiles, hippos, songbirds, rhinos, 200 tree species, orchids, elephants, turtles and more.
  • India’s Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) is included in Appendix II of the convention, thereby requiring it to follow CITES regulations for the trade of the species.
  • A relief was provided by easing the CITES rules for export of Dalbergia sissoo based products. This is expected to boost Indian handicraft exports.
  • The Conference has accepted a proposal to include sea cucumbers (Thelenota) in Appendix II of the Convention.
  • Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates that live on the seafloor. They’re named for their unusual oblong shape that resembles a fat cucumber.
  • Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates that live on the seafloor. They’re named for their unusual oblong shape that resembles a fat cucumber. They are part of a larger animal group called echinoderms, which also contains starfish and sea urchins.  Sea cucumbers can breed sexually or asexually.
  • Significance: Sea Cucumbers are an integral part of the coral ecosystem as one of the main byproducts of the sea cucumbers digestion of sand is calcium carbonate and this is essential for the survival of the coral reefs.
    •  They act like garbage collectors of the ocean world, and they recycle nutrients, thus playing an important role in keeping coral reefs in good condition.
  • Sea cucumber in India is treated as an endangered species listed under Schedule I of Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.
  • Threats: According to Wildlife Conservation Society-India WCS-India), sea cucumbers were the most frequently trafficked marine species in India from 2015-2021.
    • Tamil Nadu recorded the highest number of marine wildlife seizures during this period.
  • Initiatives: In 2020, the Lakshadweep Islands administration created the world’s first conservation area for sea cucumbers.
  • India’s proposal for induction of fresh water turtle Batagur kachuga (Red Crowned Roofed Turtle) earned wide support of the parties in CoP 19 of CITES. It was widely appreciated by the parties and well accepted when introduced.
  • Operation Turtshield, India’s efforts to curb wildlife crime was appreciated.
  • For the first time India has decided not to vote against a proposal to re-open the international trade in ivory at the ongoing conference.

CITES and Ivory Trade

  • At the start of the 20th century, millions of elephants roamed Africa. But a combination of trophy hunting, ivory trade and loss of habitat resulted in a catastrophic decline over the next few decades – falling to just 1.3 million in 1979 from 10 million in 1913.
    In 1989, CITES banned international commercial ivory trade obtained from both African and Asian elephants. It did so by placing them in Appendix I of the convention, which bans trade in species threatened with extinction.
  • But poaching did not stop – just over 286,000 elephants were counted in Africa in 1995. However, populations have stabilized since then.
  • In 1997, CITES moved African elephant populations in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe to Appendix II – which allows commercial international trade subject to certain restrictions.
  • Subsequently, in 1999 and 2008, CITES permitted these countries to conduct one-off sales of ivory stock. But these countries have been arguing that regular, controlled commercial ivory trade should be allowed.
  • However, Namibia’s proposal for allowing a regular form of controlled trade in ivory by delisting the elephant populations of the four countries from Appendix II was rejected in CoP17 (2016) and CoP18 (2019).
  • At the ongoing CoP19, the proposal was moved by Zimbabwe but met the same fate. What has been India’s stand on Ivory Trade?
  • The endangered Asian elephant was included in CITES Appendix I in 1975 which banned the export of ivory from the Asian range countries.
  • In 1986, India amended The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to ban even domestic sales of ivory. After the ivory trade was globally banned, India again amended the law to ban the import of African ivory in 1991.
  • In 1981 when New Delhi hosted CoP3, India designed the iconic CITES logo in the form of an elephant. Over the years, India’s stand has been unequivocal on the ivory issue. What has changed now?
  • For the first time, India has abstained from voting on a proposal to allow the commercial sale of ivory from African elephants.
  • The development comes after Namibia had claimed that it sought India’s help to reverse the ban on the global ivory trade as part of its deal to transfer African cheetahs. 

India’s 35th Biodiversity Heritage Site

  • Recently, the Tamil Nadu Government issued a notification declaring Arittapatti in Melur block, Madurai district, a Biodiversity Heritage Site (BHS).
  • Arittapatti Biodiversity Heritage Site comprises Arittapatti village and Meenakshipuram village in Tamil Nadu. It is Tamil Nadu’s first and India’s 35th Biodiversity Heritage Site.
  • Ecological significance: The site houses around 250 species of birds, including three important raptors — the Laggar Falcon, the Shaheen Falcon and Bonelli’s Eagle.

–    It is also home to wildlife such as the Indian pangolin, slender loris and pythons.

  • Historical Significance: The area is surrounded by a chain of seven hillocks or inselbergs that serve as a watershed charging 72 lakes, 200 natural springs and three check-dams.
  • The Anaikondan tank built during the reign of Pandiyan kings in the 16th century, is one of them.
  • The site also features various megalithic structures, Tamil Brahmi Inscriptions, Jain Beds and 2200-year-old rock-cut temples adding to its historical value.
  • Biodiversity heritage sites(BHS): These are considered as unique and fragile ecosystems that can be marine ecosystems, coastal and inland waters, or terrestrial areas.
  • Who notifies BHS ? Under Section-37 of Biological Diversity Act, 2002 the State Government in consultation with local bodies may notify areas of biodiversity importance as Biodiversity Heritage Sites(BHS). 

Red Crowned Roofed Turtle

  • Scientific Name: Batagur kachuga.
  • Common Names: Bengal roof turtle, Red-crowned roofed turtle.
  • It is a freshwater turtle species, and found in deep flowing rivers with terrestrial nesting sites.
  • Distribution: It is native to India, Bangladesh and Nepal. Historically, the species was widespread in the Ganga River, both in India and Bangladesh. It also occurs in the Brahmaputra basin. Currently in India, the National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary is the only area with substantial population of the species.
  • Conservation Status: IUCN : Critically Endangered ; WPA 1972: Schedule I ; CITES : Appendix II
  • Characteristics: In comparison to their female counterparts, the males are shorter and reach only half their length.
  • In News : India has proposed to protect the Red-Crowned Roofed turtle at the 19th Conference of the Parties to CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) in Panama.

Leith’s Softshell Turtle

  • At its 19th Meeting in Panama, the Conference of Parties to CITES adopted India’s proposal to move Leith’s Softshell Turtle from Appendix II to Appendix I.
  • Leith’s Softshell Turtle (Nilssonia leithii) is a large freshwater soft-shelled turtle which is endemic to peninsular India and it inhabits rivers and reservoirs.

The species has been subject to intensive exploitation over the past 30 years. It has been poached and illegally consumed within India. It has also been illegally traded abroad for meat and for its calipee. The population of this turtle species is estimated to have declined by 90% over the past 30 years such that the species is now difficult to find. Protection Status:

  • IUCN Red List: Critically Endangered
  • Wildlife Protection Act (WPA): Schedule IV
  • CITES: Appendix I 

Himalayan Yak

  • The Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI) has approved the Himalayan Yak as a ‘food animal’.
  • The move is expected to help check decline in the population of the high-altitude bovine animal by making it a part of the conventional milk and meat industry.
  • Food Animals are those that are raised and used for food production or consumption by humans.
  • The yak-rearing states of India are Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir.

Protection Status of Wild Yak (Bos mutus): ▪   IUCN Red list status: Vulnerable

  • IUCN considers the wild species of yak under Bos mutus, while the domestic form is considered under Bos grunniens.
  • CITES: Appendix I
  • Indian WildLife (Protection) Act of 1972: Schedule I 

Black Corals

  • Recently, some researchers have discovered five new species of Black Corals
  • living as deep as 2,500 feet (762 metres) below the surface in the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea off the coast of Australia.
  • Black corals (Anthozoa: Antipatharia) can be found growing both in shallow waters and down to depths of over 26,000 feet (8,000 metres), and some individual corals can live for over 4,000 years. 


  • The Union Minister of Ports, Shipping & Waterways has announced India’s first National Centre of Excellence for Green Port & Shipping(NCoEGPS).
  • About NCoEGPS : NCoEGPS is an initiative by the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways(MoPSW).
  • Purpose: To develop a regulatory framework and alternate technology adoption roadmap for Green Shipping to foster carbon neutrality and circular economy (CE) in the shipping sector in India.
  • Knowledge Partner: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) is the knowledge and implementation partner for this project.
  • The center will be working under the framework of the Sagarmala programme of the MoPSW.
  • Functions of the Centre: The centre will act as a technological arm of MoPSW for providing the needed support on Policy, Research and Cooperation on Green Shipping areas.
  • The Center will be a host of several technological arms to support the port and shipping sector and will provide solutions to a variety of problems being faced in the industry through scientific research.
  • It will also carry out valuable education, applied research and technology transfer in maritime transportation at the local, regional, national and International levels.
  • Green Voyage 2050 Project : The Green Voyage 2050 Project is a partnership project between the Government of Norway and International Maritime Organisation (IMO) launched in May 2019 aiming to transform the shipping industry towards a lower carbon future. 

Fujiwhara Effect

  • With typhoon Hinnamnor and another tropical storm called Gardo, meteorologists observed a phenomenon called the Fujiwhara Effect.
  • Typhoon Hinnamnor, known in the Philippines as Super Typhoon Henry, was a very large and powerful tropical cyclone in Pacific Ocean that impacted Japan and South Korea.
  • About Fujiwhara Effect : The Fujiwhara Effect is any interaction between tropical storms formed around the same time in the same ocean region with their centres or eyes at a distance of less than 1,400 km, with intensity that could vary between a depression (wind speed under 63 km per hour) and a super typhoon (wind speed over 209 km per hour).
  • The interaction could lead to changes in the track and intensity of either or both storm systems.
  • In rare cases, the two systems could merge, especially when they are of similar size and intensity, to form a bigger storm.


SKOCH award

  • The West Bengal government’s Lakshmir Bhandar scheme has bagged the SKOCH award in the women and child development category.
  • About Skoch Award: Instituted in 2003, the Skoch Award is presented by the ‘Skoch Group’ for its best efforts in digital, financial and social inclusion. 

“Special Operation Medal”

  • Around 63 police officers from Telangana, Punjab, Maharashtra, Delhi and Jammu and Kashmir, have been awarded “Union Home Minister’s Special Operation Medal” for the Year- 2022. About “Union Home Minister’s Special Operation Medal”?
  • Constituted in 2018, its main objective is to recognize those operations which have a high degree of planning, high significance for the security of the country/State/UT and have a significant impact on the security of larger sections of the society.
  • Purpose: The award shall be conferred for Special Operations in the areas such as counter terrorism, border action, arms control, prevention of narcotics smuggling and rescue operations.
  • The award is announced on the 31st of October every year.
  • In a year, normally 3 Special Operations are considered for the award and in extraordinary circumstances; the award may be given to up to 5 Special Operations to encourage State/UT Police. 

‘Friends of Liberation War’ honour

▪ Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina conferred the prestigious ‘Friends of Liberation War’ honour on former US Senator Edward M Kennedy posthumously in Dhaka for his contribution to the liberation of Bangladesh. The honour was handed over to his son Edward M Ted Kennedy Junior. 

World Puzzle Championship

  • Prasanna Seshadri has won India’s first silver medal after 11 years of trying at the World Puzzle Championship (WPC).
  • The WPC gold this year went to Japan’s Ken Endo. 

National Florence Nightingale Awards 2021

  • Recently, the President of India presented the National Florence Nightingale Awards for the year 2021 to the Nursing professionals.
  • About the Award: The National Florence Nightingale Awards were instituted in the year 1973 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The award is given to outstanding Nursing personnel employed in Central, State/UTs, Private, Missionary and Voluntary Organizations.
  • The award consists of a Cash Award of 50000/-, a certificate and a medal. 

Bailey K. Ashford Medal

  • Prominent Indian physician and scientist, Dr. Subhash Babu has received the prestigious Bailey K. Ashford Medal for 2022 and the Fellow of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (FASTMH) award 2022. This award is given to him for his outstanding research and contributions to tropical medicine.

UNEP ‘Champions of the Earth’

▪   India’s Purnima Devi Barman, an Assam-based wildlife biologist, is one of the five ‘Champions of the Earth’ for this year, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has announced.

Order of Merit

  • India-born Nobel laureate Professor Venki Ramakrishnan has been awarded the prestigious Order of Merit by Britain’s King Charles III in recognition of his distinguished service to science.

Gandhi Mandela Award 2022

▪ The 14th Dalai Lama was conferred the Gandhi Mandela Award 2022 at Thekchen Choeling in Dharamshala’s McleodGanj by Himachal Pradesh governor Rajendra Vishwanath Arlekar. 

The UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence, 2022

  • Awarded to : Franca Ma-ih Sulem Yong from Cameroon, President of the NGOs #Afrogiveness and Positive Youths Africa.
  • The Prize is named after its benefactor, former Indian artist, writer and diplomat Madanjeet Singh (1924-2013) who was also a UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador.

Bihari Puraskar

  • Noted writers Madhu Kankariya and Dr Madhav Hada were awarded the 31st and 32nd Bihari Puraskar, respectively. Kankariya was awarded the Puraskar for her 2018 novel ‘Hum Yahan The’ while Hada was awarded for his 2015 literary criticism book ‘Pachrang Chola Pahar Sakhi Ri’.
  • The Bihari Puraskar is one of the three literary awards instituted by KK Birla Foundation in 1991.
  • Named after the famous poet Bihari, the award for Rajasthani authors carries a cash prize of ₹2.5 lakh, a plaque and a citation.
  • The Bihari Puraskar is given every year for an outstanding work published in the last 10 years by a Rajasthani author in Hindi or Rajasthani.

53rd edition International Film Festival of India concludes

  • France was the ‘Spotlight’ country this year.
  • The opening film of the festival was Austrian Director Dieter Berner’s film Alma and Oskar and the closing film was the Polish film ‘Perfect Number’, directed by Krzysztof Zanussi. Awardees in 53rd IFFI:
  • Spanish film ‘I Have Electric Dreams’ directed by Valentina Maurel winning the prestigious ‘Golden Peacock’ for the best film of the festival.
  • Vahid Mobasseri, lead actor of ‘No End’, was honoured with Silver Peacock for Best Actor (Male)
  • Daniela Marin Navarro, lead Actor of Best Film ‘I Have Electric Dreams’ is honoured with Silver Peacock for Best Actor (Female).
  • Iranian
  • writer and director Nader Saeivar gets Silver Peacock for Best Director for No End,
  • Celebrated Spanish film Director Carlos Saura was honoured with the prestigious Satyajit Ray Lifetime Achievement
  • Actor Producer Chiranjeevi Konidela was conferred with the IFFI Indian Film Personality of the Year Award for 2022..
  • The 53rd International Film Festival of India (IFFI) came to an end at a ceremony held at the Dr Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Stadium near Panaji on 28 November 2022.
  • The closing ceremony of IFFI was held at the Shyama Prasad Mukherjee indoor stadium in Taleigao, Goa.
  • First science documentary made in Sanskrit ‘Yanam’ screened at the 53rd IFFI. It is based on the autobiographical book “My Odyssey: Memoirs of the Man Behind the Mangalyaan Mission” by former space chairman Padma Bhushan Dr K. Radhakrishnan. ‘Yaanam’ movie portrays India’s dream project Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan). The film has been produced by AV Anoop under the banner AVA Productions with the complete support of ISRO.
  • Iranian film Nargesi by Director Payam Eskandari has won the ICFT-UNESCO Gandhi Medal at the 53rd edition of International Film Festival of India, given for a film that best reflects Mahatma Gandhi’s ideals of peace, tolerance and non-violence. The film is about a man with Down’s syndrome and the burden and consequences it creates in his life.
  • Note : Since 2004, starting from the 35th edition, Goa has become the permanent venue of the International Film Festival of India (IFFI). It is held in the month of November -December every year.

BOOKS  and Auhors

Book Author
“De la Nucléarisation de l’Asie“ (Nuclearization of Asia)

(It is a bilingual book in both French and English . The book discusses the nuclear emergency and threat posed by the nexus of Pakistan and China).

Rene Naba (French Author)
“Winning the Inner Battle Bringing the best version of you to cricket” Shane Watson
“E. K. Janaki Ammal: Life and Scientific Contributions”

Note : Janaki Ammal was India’s first female botanist and was the first Indian woman to receive a doctorate degree in botany in the U.S. In 1913.

Nirmala James
 ‘Nalanada – Until we meet again’ (The book was launched by legendary writer Ruskin Bond) Gautaam Borah


Jamshed J Irani


  • He was known as the “Steel Man of India” and was retired from the Board of Directors at Tata Steel in June 2011.
Neel Pawan Baruah
  • He was an eminent artist from Assam.


Shyam Saran Negi 


  • The first voter of Independent India, Shyam Saran Negi (106), died on 5th November at Kalpa, his native place in Kinnaur. He was cremated with state honours.
  • He had cast vote through postal ballot on November 2 due to his frail health for the 34th time for the upcoming Vidhan Sabha poll scheduled for November 12.
Ela Ramesh Bhatt


  • A noted Gandhian, leading women’s empowerment activist and founder of the SelfEmployed Women’s Association (SEWA) passed away recently.
  • Popularly known as Elaben Bhatt.
  • She headed the women’s wing of Majoor Mahajan Sangh – the Textile Labour Association founded by Anasuya Sarabhai and Mahatma Gandhi in 1920.
  • She was also a Member of the Rajya Sabha and of the Planning Commission of India in the 1980s.
  • She was known as the “Gentle Revolutionary” who changed the lives of lakhs of women through her organization (SEWA) , providing them microloans for five decades.
  • Founded Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) as a small organization in 1972. It is one of the largest cooperatives working for women, with a base of over two million members from around 18 States in the country and in neighbouring nations.
  • Pioneering work in organising the informal sector for self-employment and empowerment of women not only in India but across South Asia.
  • Served as an advisor to the World Bank, and addressed the United Nations General Assembly.
  • Was the Chairperson of Sabarmati Ashram and the Chancellor of Mahatma Gandhifounded Gujarat Vidhyapith.

National and International Awards she received :

  • Padma Bhushan,  the Ramon Magsaysay Award,  the Indira Gandhi Peace Prize .
Babu Mani Captain of Indian football team in the 1980s.
Gulam Abbas Moontasir The former India basketball captain and Arjuna awardee.
R L Kashyap Renowned mathematician and great scholar Padma Shri Awardee.
David Butler He was famous as the “father of election science”.
Mehran Karimi Nasseri An Iranian refugee, Mehran Karimi Nasseri, who lived for 18 years in Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris.

His intriguing tale inspired the 2004 Steven Spielberg film “The Terminal,”.

Ghattamaneni Krishna Veteran actor, famous as Krishna Garu and known in the Telugu film industry as ‘superstar.
Vikram Gokhale Veteran Bollywood actor.


French Open Super 2022 badminton tournament

  • India’s Satwiksairaj Rankireddy and Chirag Shetty clinched the French Open Super 2022 badminton tournament men’s doubles title after defeating Chinese Taipei’s Lu Ching Yao and Yang Po Han in straight games 21-13, 21-19 in the final, in Paris.

3 cricketers included in ICC Hall of Fame

  • West Indies cricketer Shivnarine Chanderpaul (107th)
  • England Women’s cricketer Charlotte Edwards (108th)
  • Pakistan’s Abdul Qadir (109th)

15th edition of Syed Mushtaq Ali T20 Trophy 2022

  • Mumbai beat Himachal Pradesh in the final and won their maiden Syed Mushtaq Ali T20 Trophy title at Eden Gardens, Kolkata.


  • Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) is using Semi-Automated Offside Technology (SAOT) for offside decisions in the ongoing football world cup.
  • The point of the offside rule is to prevent attacking players from perpetually camping in front of the opponent’s goal.

T20 World Cup 2022

  • Host country : Australia
  • Winner : England beats Pakistan by 5 wickets in the finals at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in Melbourne.
  • T20WC Men’s Player of the Tournament: Sam Curran of England.

Most Valuable Team of the ICC T20 World Cup 2022

  • Virat Kohli and Suryakumar Yadav have been named the Most Valuable Team of the ICC T20 World Cup 2022. Jos Buttler of England has been named as captain of T20 World Cup team. Hardik Pandya is named the 12th man.

Suspension of Russia and Belarus NPCs

  • The International Paralympic Committee voted to suspend the National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) of Russia and Belarus with immediate effect, placing their para-athletes’ hopes of competing at the 2024 Paralympics in jeopardy.
  • Athletes from the two countries had previously been barred from competing in the Beijing 2022 Winter Paralympics in March over Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, for which Belarus has been a staging area.

Other Sports News

  • Indian star cricketer, Virat Kohli has scripted history as he became the first batter in history to reach 4000 runs in T20 Internationals.
  • India to host the IBA Women’s World Boxing Championship 2023.
  • The Kabaddi World Cup will be held in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. The Kabaddi World Cup 2025 will be hosted out of Asia for the first time announced by the World Kabbadi Federation (WKF).
  • The Phrygian cap was unveiled as the mascot for the 2024 Paris Olympics.
  • The Indian men’s team, led by the Saurav Ghosal, clinched its first-ever gold at the Asian Squash Team Championships with a 2-0 win over Kuwait in the final. It is the biggest win of Indian Men’s Team since they won 2014 Asian Games Gold.
  • Star Indian batter Suryakumar Yadav has become the first Indian player to score 1,000 T20 International runs in a calendar year. The batter accomplished this feat in his side’s final Super 12 stage match against Zimbabwe in Melbourne cricket ground (MCG), Australia.
  • Star Indian paddler (TT Player) Achanta Sharath Kamal has become the first player from India to get elected in the Athletes’ Commission of the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF).
  • Shiva Narwal won the gold medal in the 10m men’s air pistol competition at the Asian Airgun Championship in Daegu, South Korea.
  • The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) has dissolved the four-member National Selection Committee headed by Chetan Sharma after India team’s uninspired performance in T20 World Cup. Apart from chief selector Chetan Sharma, other members of the selection committee were Sunil Joshi, Harvinder Singh and Debashish Mohanty.
  • Novak Djokovic won the sixth ATP Finals singles title win beating Casper Ruud from Norway.
  • Manika Batra, the Indian Table Tennis player, became the first Indian woman to win a medal at the Asian Cup Table Tennis Tournament.
  • Cristiano Ronaldo creates history as he became the first male player to score in five World Cups in Portugal’s opening game in Qatar against Ghana.
  • Canada won their first Davis Cup title (tennis) after Felix Auger-Aliassime beat Australia’s Alex de Minaur in the finals.
  • Ruturaj Gaikwad hit a world record seven sixes in the 49th over of Maharashtra’s Vijay Hazare Trophy quarter-final against Uttar Pradesh in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Rituraj Gaikwad, playing for Maharashtra, became the first batsman in List-A cricket to hit 7 sixes in an over in the quarter-finals.


1 November : World Vegan Day

  • It is celebrated to encourage people to follow the vegan lifestyle and spread awareness about veganism.
  • The day is dedicated to the practice of abstaining from use of animal products and exploitation of animals.
  • This year’s theme is centered around the Vegan Society’s ‘Future Normal’

7 November : National Cancer Awareness Day 2022

  • This day is important because it educates people about the serious risk of cancer.
  • According to the WHO, cancer is the second most deadly disease that causes death among people.
  • The condition of people dying of cancer is a serious threat to India. In the year 2020, 8.5 lakh people in India died of cancer.

7th November  : Birth Anniversary of CV Raman

  • CV Raman  was born on 7th November 1888, in Trichinopoly, Tamil Nadu, and died on 21st November 1970, in

Bangalore. He was one of India’s greatest scientists and a physicist who made discoveries that were broader than modern science and were called the Raman Effect, the phenomenon of change of wavelength of light when a beam is scattered in a medium.

8 November : World Radiography Day

  • Theme 2022 : “Radiographers at the Forefront of Patient Safety.”
  • This day is observed to honour the discovery of X-radiation, also known as X-rays. This day in 1895 saw the completion of German scientist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen’s discovery of X-radiation, or X-rays. For this accomplishment, he was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

9 November : National Legal Services Day

  • On this day in 1995, the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 came into force.

November 9 to November 14 : International Week of Science and Peace

  • This week is an initiative taken by the United Nations (UN), hoping to make people contribute towards the encouragement and promotion of peace across the globe.

15 November : Janjatiya Gaurav Divas   

  • On this day, the President of India paid tribute to the freedom fighter Bhagwan Birsa Munda.
  • Birsa Munda born on 15th November 1875 was a member of the Munda Tribe of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau. He was an Indian freedom fighter, religious leader, and folk hero who led Munda Ulgulan (revolt) against the British government-imposed feudal state system.
  • His struggle against the exploitation and discrimination against tribals led to the passing of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act in 1908 which restricted the passing of land from the tribal people to non-tribals.

16 November : National Press Day

  • It is celebrated every year to commemorate the setting up of the Press Council of India.
  • About Press Council of India : It was first set up in 1966 under the Indian Press Council Act, 1965, on the recommendations of the first Press Commission, with the two-fold objective of preserving the freedom of the press by maintaining and improving the standards of newspapers and the news agencies in India
  • As a quasi-judicial autonomous authority, it was reestablished in the year 1979 under an Act of Parliament, Press Council Act, 1978.
  • The Council is a body corporate having perpetual succession consisting of a Chairman and 28 members.

19 November : World Toilet Day

  • The theme for 2022: ” Making the invisible visible
  • This day is observed since 2013 to raise awareness about the importance of sustainable sanitation to keep people healthy.
  • Note : India has already achieved SDG Target 6.2 pertaining to access to safe sanitation, when the entire county achieved Open Defecation Free State (ODF) status in 2019; it is persistent in its efforts to now achieve ODF+ status.

Open Defecation Free (ODF), ODF+, ODF++ Status (for Town and Cities)

  • ODF: An area can be notified or declared as ODF if at any point of the day, not even a single person is found defecating in the open.
  • ODF+: This status is given if at any point of the day, not a single person is found defecating and/or urinating in the open, and all community and public toilets are functional and well maintained.
  • ODF++: This status is given if the area is already ODF+ and the faecal sludge/septage and sewage are safely managed and treated, with no discharging or dumping of untreated faecal sludge and sewage into the open drains, water bodies or areas.

20 November : World Children’s Day

▪   Theme 2022“Inclusion, for every child”. 21 November : World Television Day.

26 November : Constitution Day

  • It is celebrated on 26th November every year. It is also known as National Law Day.
  • On this day in 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India formally adopted the Constitution of India that came into force on 26th January 1950.
  • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment on 19th November 2015, notified the decision of the Government of India to celebrate 26 November as ‘Constitution Day’.
  • Prime Minister of India launched various new initiatives under the e-court project including Virtual Justice Clock, JustIS mobile App 2.0, Digital court and S3WaaS Websites on Constitution Day, 26th November 2022.
  • Virtual Justice Clock is an initiative to exhibit vital statistics of the justice delivery system at the Court level.

JustIS Mobile App 2.0 is a tool available to judicial officers for effective court and case management by monitoring pendency and disposal of cases.

  • Digital court is an initiative to make the court records available to the judge in digitised form to enable the transition to Paperless Courts.
  • S3WaaS Websites is a framework to generate, configure, deploy and manage websites for publishing specified information and services related to district judiciary.

26 November: National Milk Day

  • Department of Animal Husbandry is celebrating National Milk Day on 26th November 2022.
  • National Gopal Ratna Awards 2022 are conferred as part of the celebrations.
  • Note : June 1 is observed as World Milk Day every year.
  • 26th November 2022 commemorates 101st birth anniversary of Dr. Verghese Kurien, the “Father of White Revolution in India”.

Dr. Verghese Kurien (1921-2012):

  • He is known as the ‘Father of White Revolution in India’.  He is famous for his ‘Operation Flood’, which is known as the world’s largest agricultural program.  He established 30 institutions that are run by various farmers and workers.
  • He also played a key role in the establishment and success of Amul Brand.  Because of his efforts only, India became the largest producer of milk in 1998, surpassing the U.S.
  • He also helped India become self-sufficient in edible oils.
  • He was honoured with several awards, including the Ramon Magsaysay Award (1963), Krishi Ratna (1986) and World Food Prize (1989).
  • He is also the recipient of India’s highest civilian awards- Padma Shri (1965), Padma Bhushan (1966) and Padma Vibhushan (1999).

28 November :Red Planet Day

  • 28th November is marked as Red Planet Day commemorating the day when National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission Mariner 4 was launched in 1964.
  • Mariner 4 captured significant information on, and photographs of, Mars for the first time.

15 November 2022:

  • The Day of Eight Billion, marked on 15 November 2022, was designated by the United Nations as the approximate day when the world population reached eight billion people.


Himachal Pradesh

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi gifted the local artifacts made in Himachal Pradesh to the world leaders at the upcoming G20 Summit held in Indonesia’s capital city, Bali. The local Himachali artifacts include Chamba Rumals, Kinnauri Shawl, Himachal Mukhate, Kangra Miniature Paintings, Kullu Shawl, and Kanal Brass Set to the World leaders.

Shyam Saran Negi, Kalpa  (Kinnaur)

  • 106-year-old Shyam Saran Negi, the first voter of Independent India, exercised his right to franchise for the 34th time for the Himachal Pradesh Assembly elections through a postal ballot at his residence in Kinnaur district.
  • Negi, a teacher by profession who hails from the tribal district of Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh exercised his right to franchise for the 34th time for the 14th Vidhan Sabha elections through a postal ballot at his home in Kalpa. He cast his vote through a postal ballot for the first time.
  • He has never missed his date with the poll and has voted in all Panchayat, assembly and parliament elections. Till now, he had cast his vote in all the elections at the booth. He decided to vote at home due to health issues.
  • He had expressed his willingness to cast vote at the booth this time also but his health is not good and so he decided to vote at home.
  • Note : Negi became the first voter of the country as elections were held on October 25, 1951 in Kinnaur, ahead of other parts of the country which went to polls in February 1952.


  • Fish Museum in Arunachal : A fish museum, the first of its kind in the Northeast, would soon be built in Arunachal Pradesh. The fish museum would be a part of India’s first Integrated Aqua Park (IAP), sanctioned by the Union Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying (MoFAHD).
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the first Greenfield airport in Arunachal Pradeshthe Donyi Polo Airport at Itanagar — and dedicated the 600 MW Kameng Hydro Power Station to the nation. Northeast India will now have 16 airports. Bihar
  • Saharsa became the first district in Bihar to be declared paperless (e-office) with an aim to end the Great Indian Red Tape.

Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar launched the Har Ghar Gangajal Project in Rajgir.  The Har Ghar Gangajal Project will help to harvest the excess water of the Ganga during the monsoon season and supply it to water deficit areas.


International Gita Mahotsav has been organized in Haryana from November 19 to December 6 at Kurukshetra. It was inaugurated by President Droupadi Murmu.


  • The 41st edition of the India International Trade Fair (IITF) has started at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi. Commerce and Industry Minister Piyush Goyal inaugurated the fair.


  • Vadodara in Gujarat became the second city in India to issue a municipal bond with assistance from the US Treasury Department’s Office of Technical Assistance. (The first city to avail the US Treasury Department’s services was Pune in 2017). The proceeds raised from the bond issue will be used for funding 14 projects under the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) scheme.


▪ The Tripura Chief Minister Dr Manik Saha launched the ‘Amar Sarkar’ web portal. This portal will act as a bridge between the government and the people. Various problems and grievances of the people can be raised from village level to block, district and state level through this portal.


  • Electronics Manufacturing Cluster : Union Minister of State for Electronics and Information Technology Rajeev Chandrasekhar announced that an Electronics Manufacturing Cluster is to be developed in the Ranjangaon area of Maharashtra. The Electronics Manufacturing Clusters will be developed for ₹500 crores. Electronics Manufacturing Clusters are expected to generate thousands of jobs in the coming years and will attract an investment of over ₹2,000 crores.


  • The Manipur Forest Authority to celebrate the 7th edition of the Amur Falcon Festival in Tamenglong district, Imphal.

The objective of the Amur Falcon Festival is to spread awareness about the protection and conservation of the Amur Falcon. Amur Falcon is the world’s longest-flying migratory bird.

  • Manipur gets the top position in the Northeast Olympic Games for the second consecutive time.

Jammu & Kashmir

  • Lieutenant Governor Manoj Sinha inaugurated the Annual Youth Festival ‘Sonzal-2022’ at the University of Kashmir. Sonzal means rainbow, which is a symbol of hope, inspiration, and good fortune.


  • Kerala becomes the first state in India to launch uniform gold prices based on the bank rate. The decision to introduce a uniform price on 916 purity 22-carat gold has been taken at a meeting between officials of Malabar Gold and Diamonds.( Kerela is top gold-consuming state in the country).
    Kudumbashree Mission
  • It is the poverty eradication and women empowerment programme implemented by the State Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM) of the Government of Kerala. The name Kudumbashree in Malayalam language means ‘Prosperity of the Family’. The name represents ‘Kudumbashree Mission’ or SPEM as well as the Kudumbashree Community Network.

Uttar Pradesh

  • Recently, the Government of Uttar Pradesh has announced that Mathura-Vrindavan is aiming to become a “net zero carbon emission” tourist destination by 2041. This will be the first such carbon neutral master plan for a tourist destination in India. ( More than 70 countries have promised to become Net Zero by the middle of the century i.e., by 2050. India has promised to cut its emissions to net zero by 2070 at the conference of parties-26(COP) summit).
  • Uttar Pradesh government to host Khelo India National University Games in 2023-2024 in four cities. Khelo India National University Games will be conducted in four cities of Uttar Pradesh including Lucknow, Gorakhpur, Varanasi, and Noida.
  • UP has added the most number of new companies after Maharashtra since the outbreak of Covid-19, beating industrial hubs such as Delhi, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu as per data released by the corporate affairs ministry (MCA).
  • Shahjahanpur district of UP has become number one in the country in giving maximum number of tap connections in a month. Under the Jal Jeevan Mission, Shahjahanpur has created history in providing tap connections to every household in rural areas.


  • The Uttarakhand High Court will be shifted from Nainital to Haldwani.
  • The Uttarakhand high court has banned all construction activities in the dry area around the Sukhatal lake, a rain-fed water body that recharges the Naini lake.
  • Prasoon Joshi has been appointed by Uttarakhand Government as the state’s brand ambassador. Mizoram Recently, many Kuki-Chin refugees from Chittagong Hill Tract Area in Bangladesh entered Mizoram (India) fearing an attack from Bangladesh security forces against them.
  • Mizoram Government expressed sympathy for the refugees, who belong to the Chin-Kuki-Mizo communities, and resolved to give temporary shelter, food and other relief as per convenience of the state government.

Madhya Pradesh

  • The foundation stone of the construction work of the World’s First Vedic Clock has been done in the city of Ujjain (city of Mahakal), Madhya Pradesh. The ‘Vedic Clock’ will be constructed at Jantar Mantar Government Jiwaji Observatory at a cost of Rs 1.62 cr. This clock will be fixed on the basis of the principles of Vedic time calculation. The application of the Vedic Clock will be used for moon position, festival, auspicious time, birth anniversary, fast, festival major holidays among others.


  • Nagaland has hosted the first edition of the Tokhü Emong Bird Count (TEBC) between November 4 to 7, a fourday documentation event to list birds in the state. This event is being organised in collaboration with the Wokha Forest Division and the Divisional Management Unit, Nagaland Forest Management Project (NFMP), Wokha, and Bird Count India. Assam
  • The first institute of Unani medicine in the Northeast region of India was inaugurated in Silchar town of Assam.
  • Recently, six people were killed and several others injured during an alleged clash between the Assam Police and a mob in an area bordering the West Karbi Anglong district of Assam and Mukroh village in Meghalaya’s West Jaintia Hills.
  • Note : Assam and Meghalaya have a longstanding dispute in 12 stretches of their 884-km shared border.


  • Odisha, Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik has launched AMLAN– ‘Anaemia Mukta Lakhya Abhiyan’ in the state.


Rising Sun Water Fest-2022

  • Rising Sun Water Fest 2022 was an initiative by the Indian Army’s Eastern Command with the governments of Assam and Meghalaya.
  • The opening ceremony of the Rising Sun Water Fest-2022 was conducted amidst the pristine surroundings of Umiam Lake (man-made reservoir) at Meghalaya and the members of the Garo tribal community perform Wangala dance on the occasion.
  • Note: Wangala is also known as the Festival of Hundred Drums and is celebrated with different forms of dances on the tunes of folk songs played on drums and primitive flute made of buffalo horns.
    • The festival is celebrated in honour of the Sun God and marks the end of the long harvest season.
    • Wangala Festival of Meghalaya is one of the most popular festivals among the Garos of Meghalaya. Wangala Festival is a harvest festival that is held in honor of Saljong, the Sun-God of fertility.


  • According to a recent study, the horns of Rhinoceroses may have become smaller over time due to selective pressure of hunting.
  • Ministry of Jal Shakti has organized Ganga Utsav The River Festivals 2022 on 4th November 2022 at the Major Dhyan Chand Stadium in New Delhi. It was organized by the collaboration of The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG), the Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, and the Ministry of Jal Shakti.
  • Adani New Industries Ltd. has constructed a wind turbine in Mundra in Gujarat as part of its growth plans for renewable energy that is taller than the Statue of Unity and has blades that are broader than the wingspan of a jumbo jet.
  • Guyana President, Dr. Mohamed Irfaan Ali will be the chief guest at the 17th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas Convention. It will be held from 8th to 10th January next year in Indore, Madhya Pradesh.
  • Recently, the 553rd birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of Sikhism was celebrated.
  • Recently, the 11th Session of the India-Belarus Inter-Governmental Commission on Trade, Economic, Scientific, Technological and Cultural Cooperation was held.
  • Recently, India hosted the Second Agriculture Ministerial-level meeting of the Bay of Bengal Initiative for MultiSectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC).
  • Recently, Norway’s Ambassador to India has reported that the bilateral trade between India and Norway has doubled to $2 billion in the last two years.
  • Recently, the 8th Norway-India Joint Working Group Maritime meeting was held in Mumbai, India.
  • Recently, United Kingdom (UK) and India decided to launch a Young Professionals Exchange in 2023. UK will offer 3000 degree-holding Indians in the 18-30 year age group places to work for up to two years.
  • Recently, the Andaman & Nicobar Islands has filed an application, seeking the Geographical Indication (GI) tag for the Nicobari Hodi craft. This is the first application from the Union Territory seeking a tag for one of its products. The hodi is the Nicobari tribe’s traditional craft. It is an outrigger canoe (narrow boat), very commonly operated in the Nicobar group of islands.
  • Recently, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has given environmental clearance for the ambitious Rs 72,000 crore development project on the strategically important Great Nicobar Island. The project is to be implemented in three phases over the next 30 years. The project include a greenfield city including an International Container Trans-shipment Terminal (ICTT), a greenfield international airport, and a power plant.
  • Recently, the National Statistical Office (NSO) has released the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS).
  • The unemployment rate in urban areas for persons aged above 15 eased to 7.2% in July-September 2022 from 9.8% in July-September 2021.
  • Recently, the China International Development Cooperation Agency (CIDCA), held a meeting of the China-Indian Ocean Region Forum in which 19 countries took part but not India. (India was reportedly not invited).
  • Theme: Shared Development: Theory and Practice from the Perspective of the Blue Economy.
  • Recently, the 4th India-France Defense Dialogue was held in India.
  • Recently, NITI Aayog has released a study report, titled ‘Carbon Capture, Utilisation, and Storage (CCUS) Policy Framework and its Deployment Mechanism in India’.
  • India is on track to become the world’s third largest economy by 2027, surpassing Japan and Germany, and have the third largest stock market by 2030, thanks to global trends and key investments the country has made in technology and energy, says Morgan Stanley.
  • The year 2022 has been declared as the ASEAN-India Friendship year, as ASEAN and India commemorate 30 years of partnership.
  • Switzerland Tourism has appointed Olympic Gold medalist Neeraj Chopra as the ‘Friendship Ambassador’.
  • Pakistan, Ghana and Bangladesh will be among the first recipients of funding from a G7 ‘Global Shield’ initiative to provide funding to countries suffering climate disasters, the programme announced at the COP27 summit in Egypt.
  • Amazon.com Inc. is the world’s first public company to lose a trillion dollars in market value as a combination of rising inflation, tightening monetary policies and disappointing earnings updates triggered a historic selloff in the stock this year.
  • India’s national grid operator ‘Power System Operation Corporation Ltd (POSOCO)’ has announced that it has changed its name to ‘Grid Controller of India Ltd’.
  • Prasar Bharati celebrated the silver jubilee or 25 years of its establishment on 23 November, 2022. It was on this day in 1997, that it came into being as a statutory autonomous body set up by an Act of Parliament.
  • Army Chief General Manoj Pande received a Guard of Honour at the Les Invalides in Paris on 17 November, 2022. He is on a four-day visit to France.
  • Chief Election Commissioner Rajiv Kumar has been invited by the Election Commission of Nepal as an international observer for the forthcoming elections to Nepal’s House of Representatives and Provincial Assembly.
  • India has emerged as the second-largest producer of crude steel by replacing Japan. The biggest steel producing country is currently China, which accounted for 57% of world steel production.
  • Cambridge Dictionary announced ‘Homer’ as Word of the Year 2022.
  • Vice President Jagdeep Dhankhar has joined the Emir of Qatar Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani and other dignitaries in the inauguration of FIFA World Cup in Qatar.
  • India has launched the official website of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) as it will host the next SCO summit as a chairman of organisation in 2023.
  • The theme of the event is “For a SECURE SCO”.
  • Russia has become India’s biggest fertilizer supplier for the first time replacing China.
  • German racing driver Sebastian Vettel has retired from Formula One racing.
  • Zorba : India’s first dog to be deployed for tracking down poachers has passed away of old age in Guwahati.
  • QatarEnergy announced a 27-year natural gas supply deal with China, calling it the “longest” gas supply deal.
  • India wins the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Vice Presidency and Strategic Management Board (SMB) Chair for the 2023-25 term. Shri Vimal Mahendru will be the IEC Vice President representing India.
  • India has invited Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi as the chief guest for the Republic Day in 2023.
  • Union Health Ministry designated Padma Shri, Khel Ratna Arjuna Awardee and the President of the Paralympic Committee of India, Dr. Deepa Malik as Nikshay Mitra ambassador in New Delhi. It is an initiative under Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan.
  • Team Purple, with its newly minted “Dear Diary” was named the winner of the 75 Creative Minds of Tomorrow talent campus, a segment of the International Film Festival of India.
  • The 5-day long Film Bazaar concluded at the International Film Festival of India (IFFI) in Goa with Bangladesh feature film ‘Agantuk’ being named the winner of the Prasad DI award.
  • National Cadet Corps (NCC), the largest uniformed youth organisation in the world raised in 1948, celebrated its 74th anniversary on November 27, 2022.
  • Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (CSMVS) was conferred with the ‘Award of Excellence’ at the UNESCO Asia-Pacific Awards for Cultural Heritage Conservation-2022.
  • The world’s largest active volcano erupted in Hawaii for the first time in four decades.
  • The World Health Organisation has changed the name of the disease Monkeypox to Mpox.
  • The US dictionary publisher Merriam-Webster announced that their 2022 word of the year is “gaslighting”. Merriam-Webster defines it, “the act or practice of grossly misleading someone especially for one’s own advantage”.
  • Udaipur is gearing up to host the first G20 Sherpa Meeting in India from 4 to 7 December.
  • The seventh edition of the Global Technology Summit is to be held till the 1st of December in New Delhi in a hybrid format.

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