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Current Affairs September 2022

Current Affairs September – 2022


  • STATE’s News


Rushpa Rail Bridge:

  • During recent visit of Bangladesh prime Minister (Sheikh Hasina) to India , the 5.13-km Rupsha rail bridge was inaugurated.
  • This bridge is a key part of the 64.7-km Khulna-Mongla port broad gauge railway project. It will help in
    connecting Khulna with Mongla port and the Indian border at Petrapole and Gede in West Bengal.
  • The connectivity initiatives are part of the ongoing projects in Bangladesh that are aimed at converting the country into a major connectivity hub of South and Southeast Asia.
  • The bridge was constructed with an Indian line of credit of $389 million.
  • It will increase connectivity with Mongla, Bangladesh’s second largest port
The passenger trains between India and Bangladesh:

  • Bandhan Express:
    • starting from Kolkata for Khulna – Since 2017
    • It covers the distance via Petrapole and Benapole border route to cater to the demands
      of the people from both countries
  • Maitree Express:
    • Starting from Dhaka for Kolkata – since 2008
    • The tri-weekly service between Kolkata and Dhaka used to run with 90 percent
  • Mitali Express:
    • Starting from New Jalpaiguri in North Bengal to Dhaka

IMF bailout package of $2.9 billion to Sri Lanka

  • Sri Lanka has been witnessing food and energy shortages and political instability for a long period of time. This has made the country to run out of the cash to survive its economy. Therefore, IMF has assisted Sri Lanka in improving its position.
    How $2.9 billion will be given to Sri Lanka ?
  • The IMF package is to be paid in tranches over the next four years, which is less than what India provided to Sri Lanka over four months.What causes the Economic Crisis in Sri Lanka?
  • The Economic Crisis of Sri Lanka with USD 51 billion debt which was caused due to various reasons:
  • The Easter bomb blasts of April 2019 in churches in Colombo.
  • The government policy of lower tax rates and wide-ranging subsidies for farmers during their campaign.
  • The Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 which impacted exports of tea, rubber, spices, garments and the tourism sector.How has IMF helped Sri Lanka and what are its suggestions?
  • Sri Lanka has finalized a staff-level agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and four-year rescue plan worth $2.9 billion has been provided by the IMF.
  • The IMF agreement has laid down the following conditions for the Sri Lankan government: a) a cut in spending, b) increase in taxes, c) policies against corruption, d) autonomy for the central bank, and e) reduction in debt-to-gross domestic product ratio.
  • It also wants that Sri Lanka should talk to its top bilateral fund creditors (China, Japan, and India) to restructure its loans, seek debt relief and financial assurances.How has the three countries help Sri Lanka at the time of crisis?
  • China: China is the largest lender of Sri Lanka accounting for 20 per cent of its overall debts.
  • Japan: Japan is the second largest bilateral lender to Sri Lanka but it has been very cautious to respond to crisis. Sri Lanka owes 9 per cent of its debt to Japan.
  • Moreover, Japan has also shown interest in defense cooperation, Sri Lankan ports and infrastructure development in Sri Lanka due to the increase in the importance of the Indo-Pacific region.
  • India: India’s approach to the Sri Lankan crisis is people-centric as well as interest-driven. India has assisted Sri Lanka with $3.8 billion in 2022 and Sri Lanka owes 2% of its debt to India.
  • India has also provided credit lines, currency swaps, modernization, investments, and emergency humanitarian supplies to prevent the collapsing of Sri Lanka’s economy.
  • Further, India has offered a free-floating dock facility, a Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre, and a Dornier
    reconnaissance aircraft to make Indian Ocean free of threats
  • India’s interest toward Sri Lank has made Sri Lanka to align with India and move away from China. For example, Sri Lanka has cancelled the Chinese energy projects in the Jaffna peninsula and offered India the project to modernize the strategic Trincomalee oil tank farm.What are the challenges that Sri Lanka can face?
  • Sri Lanka can face challenge from China as China has expansionist interest. Thus, it will continue to pressurize Sri Lanka to abide by its interests especially trying to put Sri Lanka away from India.
  • Further, Sri Lanka might also face challenge to convince India if it increases its bilateral relation with China.
  • Japan and India have security concerns while China has expansionist interest in Sri Lanka Therefore, Sri
    Lanka would have to create a balanced approach towards negotiating its debt and maintaining bilateral relations.

G20 Education Ministers’ Meeting

  • Venue : Bali, Indonesia
  • Theme: Recovery, Re-imagine and Rebuild Stronger
  • Union Education and Skill Development Minister Shri Dharmendra Pradhan as a troika co-chair addressed
    the G-20 Education Ministers’ Meeting in Bali, Indonesia.
  • ‘Troika’ meetings : it comprises the countries presiding over the G-20 in the past year, present year, and next year. At present, the Troika is made up of Italy (2021), Indonesia (2022) and India (2023).

India-South Africa

  • Union Education and Skill Development Minister Shri Dharmendra Pradhan held a bilateral meeting with Dr.
    Bonginkosi Emmanuel “Blade” NZIMANDE, Minister of Higher Education, Science & Innovation, Republic of
    South Africa, in Bali, Indonesia
  • The Ministers had fruitful discussions on strengthening the academic & skill development partnerships and bilateral education cooperation.
  • The Ministers agreed to develop institutional mechanisms for tie-ups between Higher Education Institutions
    (HEIs) & skill institutions, mutual recognition of skill qualifications & capacity building in skill development.
  • They also decided to set up a Joint Working Group on Education between two countries to further extend the
    cooperation that already exists and also to realise the full potential of bilateral cooperation in education.

Kushiyara River

  • During recent visit of Bangladesh prime Minister (Sheikh Hasina) to India , India and Bangladesh have
    signed an interim water sharing agreement for the Kushiyara river.
  • Significance: This is the first such pact between them in over 25 years — the Ganga water treaty was signed in
  • The pact will benefit people in southern Assam and Sylhet in Bangladesh. Under the pact, the two countries will also share the data on floods.
  • Kushiyara River : It is a distributary river in Bangladesh and Assam. It forms on the India-Bangladesh border as a branch of the Barak River when the Barak separates into the Kushiyara and Surma.
  • The waters of the Kushiyara originate in the state of Nagaland and pick up tributaries from Manipur, Mizoram and Assam.

Uyghurs Muslims

  • Recently, according to a report by United Nations, China is conducting serious human rights violations
    against Uyghurs that may amount to crimes against humanity.
  • The report accuses China of sweeping a million or more people from minority groups into detention camps where many have said they were tortured, sexually assaulted, and forced to abandon their language and religion.
  • Xinjiang- Located in the northwest China, Xinjiang covers one-sixth of China’s territory. It is officially known as the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR).
  • Significance : It borders with 8 countries including Russia, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan and other central Asian countries. It contains a wealth of natural resources and is part of the ancient Silk Road.
    Uyghur Muslims
  • The Uyghurs are a predominantly Muslim minority Turkic ethnic group, whose origins can be traced to Central
    and East Asia. The Uyghurs speak their own language, similar to Turkish, and see themselves as culturally and
    ethnically close to Central Asian nations.
  • The Uyghurs are considered to be one of the 55 officially recognized ethnic minority communities in China.
  • However, China recognizes the community only as a regional minority and rejects that they are an indigenous
  • Currently, the largest population of the Uyghur ethnic community lives in the Xinjiang region of China.
  • A significant population of Uyghurs also lives in the neighbouring Central Asian countries such as Uzbekistan,
    Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan.
    What is the response of China?
  • China has maintained that its crackdown in Xinjiang is aimed at containing the East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) which is allegedly linked to radical outfits.
  • Beijing registered a strong opposition to the U.N. report and slandered the Western forces for using human rights as a political tool.
  • China also maintained that Xinjiang enjoys social stability, economic development and religious harmony.
    Other Muslim ethnic groups
  • Kurd: They are one of the indigenous peoples of the Mesopotamian plains and the highlands in what are now
    South-eastern Turkey, North-eastern Syria, northern Iraq, North-western Iran and South-western Armenia. They also adhere to a number of different religions and creeds, although the majority is Sunni Muslims.
  • Rohingya: They are an ethnic group, largely comprising Muslims, who predominantly live in the Western
    Myanmar province of Rakhine. They speak a dialect of Bengali, as opposed to the commonly spoken Burmese
    language. According to Myanmar authorities, they are not the authorized citizens of the country.


  • Recently, the Indian and Chinese troops have begun disengaging at Patrolling Pillar-15 (PP-15) in the GograHotspring region of Eastern Ladakh.
  • Forces of the two countries have been locked in a confrontational position in the area since April 2020.
  • PP-15 is one of the 65 patrolling points in Ladakh along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
  • The disengagement is a result of 6th round of India China Corps Commander Level Meeting held on July 17, 2022, at the Chushul border personnel meeting point on the Indian side.
    Does it mean that both countries have disengaged at all friction points ?
  • No, with disengagement at PP-15, forces of the two countries have disengaged at all friction points in the
    region which included the North and South banks of the Pangong Tso, PP-14, PP-15 and PP-17A.
  • However, the friction points that remain now are Demchok and Depsang, which China has constantly refused to accept, maintaining that they are not a part of the current stand-off.
    Hot Springs and Gogra Post
  • Hot Springs is just north of the Chang Chenmo river and Gogra Post is east of the point where the river takes a
    hairpin bend coming southeast from Galwan Valley and turning southwest.
  • The area is north of the Karakoram Range of mountains, which lies north of the Pangong Tso lake, and south east of Galwan Valley.
  • Importance: The area lies close to Kongka Pass, one of the main passes, which, according to China, marks the
    boundary between India and China.
  • This engagement has come after a series of clashes and agreements between the two nations. However, still the
    bilateral relations between the two countries are declining.
    What are reasons for declining bilateral relation between India and China?
  • China surprise attack to India in April 2020 in LAC was in violation of a range of bilateral agreements negotiated by India and China. This broke India’s political trust in China that was already weakened by the earlier military crises in the high Himalayas during 2013, 2014, and 2017.
  • Galwan clashes between the two sides in mid-June 2020 also saw blood shedding for the first time on the Chinese border in five decades.
    What steps have been taken by India to counter China?
  • India has imposed a series of economic measures against China and increased its military engagements in the
  • India has also stated that the “state of the border” reflects the “state of the relationship”.
  • India has stepped up its security cooperation with America and restored the Quadrilateral forum (QUAD) with
    Australia, Japan, and the US.

Non-Proliferation Treaty

  • Recently, the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference which was held in New York ended without
    adopting a substantive outcome due to Russia’s objection
    What is the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty?
  • The NPT is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons
    technology, to foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of disarmament
  • The treaty was signed in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. Presently, it has 191 member states.
    • India is not a member.
  • It represents the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclearweapon States
  • Nuclear-weapon states parties under the NPT are defined as those that manufactured and exploded a nuclear
    weapon or other nuclear explosive devices before 1st January, 1967.
    India’s Stand:
  • India is one of the only five countries that either did not sign the NPT or signed but withdrew later, thus
    becoming part of a list that includes Pakistan, Israel, North Korea, and South Sudan.
  • India always considered the NPT as discriminatory and had refused to sign it.
  • India has opposed the international treaties aimed at non-proliferation since they were selectively applicable to the non-nuclear powers and legitimised the monopoly of the five nuclear weapons powers (United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China).

“Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF) meeting

  • Host : The USA is hosting the first in-person meeting of IPEF in Los Angeles
    About IPEF
  • It is a US-led initiative that aims to strengthen economic partnership among participating countries to enhance
    resilience, sustainability, inclusiveness, economic growth, fairness, and competitiveness in the Indo-Pacific region.
  • The IPEF was launched in 2021 with a dozen initial partners who together represent 40% of the world GDP.
  • The IPEF is not a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) but allows members to negotiate the parts they want to. The
    negotiations will be along four main “pillars”.

    • Supply-chain resilience.
    • Clean energy, decarbonisation & infrastructure.
    • Taxation & anti-corruption.
    • Fair & resilient trade.
  • Note : India agreed to three out of four pillars, which are Supply Chains, Tax & Anti-Corruption and Clean
    Energy but stayed out of the joint declaration on the trade pillar.
  • Currently, India and 13 countries located in the Pacific Ocean are its members
  • Total 14 members are: Australia, Brunei, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand,
    Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam.
  • Note : China is not its member.

World’s first fleet of fully hydrogen-powered trains

  • Launched by: Germany
  • Developed by: Alstom, a French multinational that also has operations in India (it supplied coaches for Delhi
  • Working: The trains are powered by what are called ‘fuel cells’ — a special kind of battery that produces electricity when hydrogen (stored in tanks above the coaches) and oxygen (taken from the air) combine. These are then used to power electric motors at the bottom of the train coach.
  • Significance: These trains are claimed as ‘emissions-free’ trains that can reach speeds of 140 kilometers per hour and can run about 1,000 km before the tank runs dry.
    Types of Hydrogen :
  • Green hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water using renewable energy (like Solar, Wind) and has a lower
    carbon footprint. Electricity splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. By Products: Water, Water Vapor.
  • Brown hydrogen is produced using coal where the emissions are released into the air.
  • Grey hydrogen is produced from natural gas where the associated emissions are released into the air.
  • Blue hydrogen is produced from natural gas, where the emissions are captured using carbon capture and storage.

“World Dairy Summit 2022

  • Organized by: International Dairy Federation(IDF)
  • Hosted by: India
    • Prime Minister inaugurated the International Dairy Federation World Dairy Summit (IDF WDS) 2022 at
      India Expo Centre and Mart in Greater Noida.
  • The last World Dairy Summit was organized in 1974 in New Delhi. After 48 years, India has organized the summit again.
  • Aim: To provide a forum for the industry experts to share knowledge and ideas on how the sector can contribute to nourishing the world with safe and sustainable dairying.
  • Theme: Dairy for Nutrition and Livelihood
    Dairy sector in India
  • India is ranked first in milk production contributing 23% of global milk production followed by the United States of America, China, Pakistan and Brazil.
  • The top 5 milk-producing states are: Uttar Pradesh (14.9%), Rajasthan (14.6%), Madhya Pradesh (8.6%,), Gujarat (7.6%,) and Andhra Pradesh (7.0%).

India-Japan 2+2 meeting held in Tokyo

  • Recently, India & Japan hold the 2+2 ministerial meeting in Tokyo to enhance security and defence cooperation.
  • Note : 2+2 Ministerial is the highest-level institutional mechanism between the two countries. It is a format of
    dialogue where the defence/foreign ministers or secretaries meet with their counterparts from another country.
  • India has 2+2 dialogues with four key strategic partners: the US, Australia, Japan, and Russia.


  • On the Occasion of Mexico National Day (16th September), India extended its greetings and felicitations to all
    Mexico Nationals and commemorated the 72 years of the establishment of diplomatic Relations.
  • Mexico was the first Latin American country to recognise India after Independence and establish diplomatic
    relations with India in 1950.
  • Mexican wheat varieties used in Indo-Mexican hybrids were the backbone of India’s Green Revolution in the
  • In the Cold War years, Mexico and India had worked together closely as members of the United
    Nations (UN), both actively championing the interests of developing countries such as in the Uruguay Round of
    Trade Negotiations (under the World Trade Organisation).
  • Both countries are members of G-20.
  • Both countries established a ‘Privileged Partnership’ in 2007.
  • Mexico is currently India’s largest trading partner in Latin America.

7th Eastern Economic Forum 

  • Recently, the 7th Eastern Economic Forum was organized at Vladivostok in Russia.
  • The Prime Minister of India virtually addressed the 7th Eastern Economic Forum meet. The PM reiterated on
    the need to end the conflict in Ukraine, which can be done through dialogue and diplomacy.
    Eastern Economic Forum
  • EEF is an international forum organised each year in Vladivostok, Russia.
  • It was first held in September 2015, at Far Eastern Federal University in Vladivostok, to support the economic
    development of Russia’s Far East and to expand international cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region.
  • This forum is sponsored by the organizing committee appointed by Roscongress. This forum serves as a platform for the discussion of key issues in the world economy, regional integration, and the development of new industrial and technological sectors, as well as of the global challenges facing Russia and other nations.
About the Far East

  • It is the easternmost part of Russia. It borders two oceans, the Pacific and the Arctic, and five countries (China, Japan, Mongolia, the United States and the DPRK).
  • The Far Eastern Federal District covers more than a third of the country’s territory. It is rich in natural resources like diamonds, stannary, borax materials, 50 gold, tungsten, and fish and seafood. About 1/3 of all coal reserves and hydro-engineering resources of the country are here. Forests of the region comprise about 30% of the total forest area
    of Russia.

Samarkand SCO Summit

  • Recently, the 22nd Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit was held in Samarkand.
    Meeting highlights
  • Upcoming Presidency of India:
    • Uzbek President chaired the 22nd SCO summit of Samarkand.
    • Uzbekistan in this summit handed over the rotating presidency of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) to India.
    • As a result India will host the next SCO summit as a chairman of the Organisation in 2023.
  • Ukraine war: Indian and Chinese leaders expressed their concerns to the Russian President over the Ukraine war.
  • About Indian Economy: Speaking at the SCO summit PM said the Indian economy is expected to grow by 7.5
    percent this year and thus will be the highest among the largest economies in the world. In his address the prime minister also said India is progressing towards becoming a manufacturing hub.
  • Iran: Iran has been admitted as a permanent member of the SCO at the Samarkand summit. Iran will attend the SCO as a full member from the Summit to be hosted by India in 2023.
  • Samarkand Declaration
    • At the end of the summit, member nations signed the Samarkand Declaration, which identified the areas of cooperation to strengthen security and development.
  • Note : India and Pakistan became members in 2017.
  • Note : Earlier, Varanasi was declared as the SCO Tourism and Cultural Capital for 2022-2023 to promote the rich cultural and historical heritage of the people and the tourism potential of SCO member states.

19th ASEAN-India Economic Ministers’ meeting 

  • Recently, India and Cambodia co-chaired the 19th ASEAN-India Economic Ministers’ meeting in Cambodia.
  • The Economic Ministers or their representatives from all the 10 ASEAN countries attended the meeting.
    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  • It is a regional grouping of 10 Nations that promotes economic, political, and security cooperation. It was
    established in August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok
    Declaration) by the 5 founding fathers of ASEAN, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and
    Thailand. Later, 5 more members (Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam) joined it.
  • Its chairmanship rotates annually, based on the alphabetical order of the English names of Member States.
  • ASEAN countries have a total population of 650 million people and a combined Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of USD 2.8 trillion.

47th AIBD Gathering – New Delhi 

  • India’s Presidency of the prestigious Asia-pacific Institute of Broadcasting Development (AIBD) has been
    extended for one more year. This was unanimously decided by the AIBD member countries at the twoday General Conference of the Institute held in New Delhi.
  • AIBD : The Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development (AIBD) was established in 1977 under the aegis of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
  • It is a unique regional inter-governmental organisation servicing countries of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP) in the field of electronic media development.
  • Its secretariat is situated in Kuala Lumpur and is hosted by the Government of Malaysia.
  • Members: Broadcasters from 26 countries in the Asia Pacific region including India are full members of the

India-Saudi Arabia Strategic Partnership Council 

  • Union Minister of Commerce and Industry, Shri Piyush Goyal visited Saudi Arabia from 18th to 19th September 2022 to attend the Ministerial meeting of the India-Saudi Arabia Strategic Partnership Council.
  • The Strategic Partnership Council was instituted in October, 2019 during the visit of the Prime Minister of India to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and has two main pillars i.e. Political, Security, Social and Cultural Committee and the Committee on Economy and Investments.
  • Note : India is the fourth country with which Saudi Arabia has formed such a strategic partnership, after the UK, France and China.
    The notable outcomes of the Ministerial Meeting are:
  • Streamlining efforts to realize the announcement made by His Royal Highness Crown Prince Mohammad Bin
    Salman, during his visit to India in February 2019, of investments worth USD 100 Billion in India.
  • Endorsement of the 41 areas of cooperation identified by the technical teams under the 4 broad domains of
    Agriculture & Food Security; Energy; Technology & IT; and Industry & Infrastructure.
  • Agreement to undertake implementation of the priority projects in a time bound manner. Priority areas of
    cooperation include:

    • Collaboration in digital fintech sector through operationalization of UPI and Rupay Card in the Kingdom
      of Saudi Arabia.
    • Re-affirmation of continued cooperation in joint projects including the West coast refinery, LNG
      infrastructure investment and development of strategic petroleum storage facilities in India.

India’s Relations with Saudi Arabia been?

  • Oil & Gas: Saudi Arabia is currently India’s second-largest supplier of crude oil (Iraq has been India’s top

    • Saudi Arabia will assist in setting up the world’s largest greenfield refinery at Raigarh in
      Maharashtra by Saudi Aramco, Adnoc of the United Arab Emirates and Indian public sector oil
  • Bilateral Trade: Saudi Arabia is India’s fourth largest trade partner (after the USA, China and UAE).
  • Indian Diaspora: The 2.6 million-strong Indian community in Saudi Arabia is the largest expatriate community in the Kingdom and is the ‘most preferred community’ due to their expertise, sense of discipline, law-abiding and peace-loving nature.
  • Cultural Linkages: Haj pilgrimage is another important component of bilateral relations between India and Saudi Arabia.
  • Naval Exercise: In 2021, India and Saudi Arabia started their first-ever Naval joint exercise called the Al-Mohed Al-Hindi Exercise.
  • Way Forward : India can utilize the friendly relations with Saudi Arabia by convincing the kingdom to exercise
    its influence over Pakistan in controlling the Taliban in Afghanistan

Clashes between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan

  • Nearly 100 people have been killed and scores injured in violent border clashes between Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
  • The borders of the two republics were demarcated under Joseph Stalin’s leadership (USSR times).
  • Historically, the Kyrgyz and Tajik populations enjoyed common rights over natural resources.
  • Ferghana valley continues to be a site of struggle and frequent violent outbursts, with the location consisting
    primarily of Tajiks, Kyrgyz, and Uzbeks, who have historically shared common sociological specificities,
    economic activities, and religious practices.


  • Foreign Ministers of the Quad (India, the U.S., Australia, and Japan) met on the fringes of the United Nations
    General Assembly (UNGA) to sign a Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) partnership into
  • Under the HADR, the member countries will coordinate their disaster response operations in the Indo-Pacific
    region with other National and International agencies, private non-governmental organizations.
    What is QUAD?
  • It is the grouping of four democracies –India, Australia, the US, and Japan.
  • All four nations find a common ground of being democratic nations and also support the common interest of
    unhindered maritime trade and security.
  • It aims to ensure and support a “free, open and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region.
  • The idea of Quad was first mooted by the then Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in 2007. However, the idea
    couldn’t move ahead with Australia pulling out of it, apparently due to Chinese pressure.
  • Finally in 2017, India, Australia, the US and Japan, came together and formed this “quadrilateral” coalition.


  • On the sidelines of the 76th session of the UN General Assembly, the G-4 countries highlight ‘urgent need’ for
    reform in U.N. Security Council (UNSC).
  • The G4 is a grouping of Brazil, Germany, India and Japan which are aspiring to become permanent
    members of the UNSC.
  • The G4 countries are supporting each other’s bids for permanent membership of the UNSC.
  • The G4 nations traditionally meet on the sidelines of the annual high-level UN General Assembly session.
    Opposition to G4: the Coffee Club
  • The Uniting for Consensus (UfC), or the Coffee Club, emerged in the 1990s in opposition to the potential
    extension of permanent seats on the UN Security Council.
  • Under the direction of Italy, it seeks to oppose the applications for permanent members put out by the G4 countries and is requesting a consensus before any decision is made regarding the structure and makeup of the Security Council.
  • Italy, along with Pakistan, Mexico and Egypt founded the Coffee Club in 1995 to reject the proposal to
    increase the number of permanent seats in the UNSC.
  • The Uniting for Consensus group contends that an increase in permanent seats will exacerbate the inequality among the member nations and lead to the cascading expansion of several privileges.
  • Other core members of this grouping are: Canada, Spain, Turkey, Argentina, and Malta.
    Why is there a Need for UNSC Reforms?
  • UN represents a larger world and the irony is that it has only 5 permanent members in its important body.
  • The current composition of the Security Council represents the post-World War II realities and thus is not in pace with the changing balance of power in the world.
  • At the time of the formation of the UNSC, big powers were given privileges to make them part of the council. This was necessary for its proper functioning as well as to avoid failure like that of the organization ‘League of Nations.
  • The regions like far East Asia, South America, and Africa have no representation in the permanent membership of the council.
  • India deserves a permanent place in the council considering the size of its economy, population and the fact
    that it is the largest democracy in the world.
  • India has become a major player not only in Asia but also in the world.
  • The Security Council would be a more representative body if India would be there in it as a permanent member.

Asian Palm Oil Alliance (APOA) – 5 Nations

  • Edible oil trade associations from five palm oil importing countries in South Asia – India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka,
    Bangladesh and Nepal announced the setting up of Asian Palm Oil Alliance (APOA).
  • Aim: To safeguard the economic and business interests of the palm oil consuming countries and will work towards increasing the consumption of palm oil in member countries.
    • To work towards ensuring that palm oil is recognised as a high-quality, economical, and healthy vegetable
      oil and to change the negative image of palm oil.
  • Members: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Nepal.
  • Meeting: APOA held its first general body meeting on the sidelines of the Globoil Summit being held at Agra,
    India and the next meeting is expected to be held in Indonesia early next year 2023.
    What is the significance of this alliance? 
  • Asia accounts for around 40% of the global palm oil consumption while Europe accounts for 12% of the palm oil trade. Indonesia and Malaysia are the biggest palm oil exporters in the world.
  • India is the largest importer of palm oil in Asia, accounting for 15% of global imports, followed by China (9%),
    Pakistan (4%) and Bangladesh (2%).
  • India’s annual imports of edible oil are around 13-14 million tonnes (MT). Around 8 MT of palm oil is imported
    from Indonesia and Malaysia while other oils, such as soya and sunflower, come from Argentina, Brazil, Ukraine and Russia.
  • Note : Palm oil is currently the world’s most consumed vegetable oil. It is used extensively in the production of
    detergents, plastics, cosmetics, and biofuels.

Global Clean Energy Action Forum-2022

  • Held at : at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the United States
    • The US, for the first time, hosted Global Clean Energy Action Forum, a joint convening of the 13th Clean
      Energy Ministerial (CEM 13) and the 7th Mission Innovation Ministerial (MI-7), from 21st to
      23rd September 2022.
  • The theme for CEM13/MI-7 is Rapid Innovation and Deployment.
  • Indian delegation of Ministry of Power, New and Renewable Energy and Ministry of Science and Technology is
    led by Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh.
  • India’s representative has said that “sustainable biofuels play a key role to reduce GreenHouse Gas (GHG)
    emissions from the transport sector.”

Rajnath Singh : first Indian Defence Minister to visit Mongolia

  • The first Indian Defence Minister to visit Mongolia, Rajnath Singh was gifted a majestic horse “Tejas” by
    President Ukhnaagiin Khurelsukh. Seven years after Prime Minister Narendra Modi received a similar gift from the leadership of this country.
  • In 2015, Prime Minister Modi received a special gift a brown racehorse from his then Mongolian counterpart
    Chimed Saikhanbileg during his historic visit to this country. The horse was named Kanthaka’.

UAE and China

  • The Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC) of the UAE and the China National Space Agency (CNSA)
    have signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to work together on the UAE’s moon missions.
  • Note : China has been highly successful with its lunar missions. In the last decade, the country launched three
    successful lunar surface missions dubbed Change 3, Change 4, and Change 5. In 2020, Change 5 also brought
    samples back from Moon to Earth.

Edward Snowden gets Russian Citizenship

  • President Vladimir Putin has granted Russian citizenship to former U.S. intelligence contractor Edward Snowden, nine years after he exposed the scale of secret surveillance operations by the National Security Agency (NSA).
  • U.S. authorities have for years wanted him returned to the United States to face a criminal trial on espionage
  • Snowden, a former employee of the U.S. National Security Agency, has been living in Russia since 2013 to
    escape prosecution in the US after leaking classified documents detailing government surveillance programs.


Bharat Vidya

  • The Union Minister for Finance Nirmala Sitharaman launched Bharat Vidya, an online learning platform for
    Oriental and South Asian studies, in Pune, on 21 September 2022.
  • Bharat Vidya has been developed by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune
  • It is a first-of-its-kind online platform, which will offer both free and paid courses covering various aspects of
    Indology pertaining to art, architecture, philosophy, language and science.
  • the courses offered complied with the New Education Policy (NEP) 2020.

India’s first Swachh Sujal Pradesh

  • Union Jal Shakti Minister Gajendra Singh Shekhawat has declared Andaman and Nicobar Islands as India’s first Swachh Sujal Pradesh.
  • Now, all villages of Andaman and Nicobar Island have been certified as Har Ghar Jal and verified as open
    defecation free – ODF plus.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands became the first Indian state/UT to achieve 100 percent coverage of precautionary dose. The precautionary doses included Corbevax and Covishield.

India’s First Lithium Cell Plant

  • The Minister of State for Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has inaugurated India’s first lithium cell manufacturing facility at Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh.
  • It has been set up by the Chennai based Munoth Industries Limited with an outlay of Rs. 165 crores.
  • The installed capacity of the plant at present is 270 Mwh and can produce 20,000 cells of 10Ah capacity daily
  • Currently India imports complete requirements of lithium-ion cells primarily from China, South Korea, Vietnam and Hong Kong.

‘Meghdoot’ machines

  • Indian Railways have set up ‘Meghdoot’ machines at Dadar, Thane and other stations of the Mumbai Division. The unique ‘Meghdoot’ machines use innovative technology to convert water vapour in the air into potable water.
  • The contract for setting up 17 ‘MEGHDOOT’, Atmospheric Water Generator Kiosks’ over Mumbai Division of
    Central Railway under NINFRIS policy for a period of 5 years has been awarded to Maithri Aquatech Pvt Ltd.

India’s First Forest University to be Established in Telangana

  • The University of Forestry (UoF), will be the first of its kind in India. Globally, it will be the third University of
    Forestry after Russia and China.
  • The Telangana government has decided to expand the Forestry College and Research Institute (FCRI) in
    Hyderabad. The FCRI will be turned into a full-fledged University.


  • A few states and one Union Territory have not uploaded a single alert on Cri-MAC (Crime Multi Agency
    Centre) platform
  • West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland and Sikkim and Union Territory of Dadra, Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu have not uploaded a single alert.
  • Delhi, Assam and Haryana uploaded the maximum number of alerts on the portal.
    What is Cri-MAC?
  • The Cri-MAC was launched in 2020 by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), which is run by National Crime
    Records Bureau (NCRB).
  • It was launched to share information on crime and criminals with various law enforcement agencies and ensure a seamless flow of information among them.
  • It aims to help in early detection and prevention of crime incidents across the country.
  • Cri-MAC facilitates dissemination of information about significant crimes, including human trafficking across
    the country on real-time basis and enables inter-State coordination.
  • It can help in locating and identifying the trafficked victims as also in prevention, detection and investigation of


  • University Grants Commission (UGC) will now monitor and resolve all grievances of students and staff in varsities through a centralised portal called `e-Samadhan`.

Digital Literacy to civil servants 

  • Recently, Microsoft has partnered with the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE), and
    Capacity Building Commission (CBC) to empower India’s civil servants with future-ready skills.
  • This project is in line with the Mission Karmayogi.
  • It was aimed at training the civil servants in helping underprivileged, by delivering last-mile social welfare
    services. The Capacity Building Commission (CBC) helps in capacity building for several ministries including
    Defence, Skill Development & Entrepreneurship, Social Justice etc.
  • This MoU was inked considering the competence gap among civil servants. They were lacking at digital
    productivity application skills, which is required while working on Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint presentation.
  • As part of MoU, Microsoft will start an online learning course on Microsoft Office 365 digital productivity suite
  • About Microsoft: This American multinational technology corporation is headquartered Washington, United
    States. Its famous software products include Windows line of operating systems, Internet Explorer, Microsoft
    Office suite, and Edge web browsers. It was established on April 4, 1975 by Bill Gates and Paul Allen.
  • About ‘Mission Karmayogi’ : it envisages to prepare Indian civil servants for the future by making them more
    creative, constructive, imaginative, innovative, proactive, professional, progressive, energetic, enabling, transparent
    and technology-enabled.

Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan 

  • The President of India has virtually launched the Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan to reinvigorate the
    mission of TB elimination from the country by 2025.
  • Aim: To bring together all community stakeholders to support those on TB treatment and accelerate the country’s progress towards TB elimination.
  • Provide additional patient support to improve treatment outcomes of TB patients,
  • Augment community involvement in meeting India’s commitment to end TB by 2025
  • Leverage Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities
    Key component of the Abhiyan 
  • Under this initiative, Ni-kshay Mitra forms a vital component.
  • Ni-kshay Mitra are donors who can provide various forms of support to those undergoing TB treatment. The threepronged support includes nutritional, additional diagnostic, and vocational support.
  • These donors could be a wide range of stakeholders from elected representatives, political parties, to corporates, NGOs, and individuals
  • Ni-kshay portal can be used by the donor to adopt TB patients. The portal will also have a real-time tracker of the number of people who get adopted.
  • The minimum period of commitment for providing additional support to the TB patient shall be one year.
    What are the expected outcomes of the initiative? 
  • This initiative will increase the active involvement of society in the fight against tuberculosis.
  • This activity aims at increasing awareness among the public regarding tuberculosis.
  • The involvement of the community in supporting the treatment cascade shall also help in the reduction of stigma.
  • Provision of additional support to the TB patient shall also result in the reduction of the out-of-pocket expenditure for the family of the TB patient.

About Tuberculosis? 

  • About: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • It commonly affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body.
  • It is a treatable and curable disease.
  • Transmission: TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or
    spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.
  • Symptoms: Common symptoms of active lung TB are cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains,
    weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • Vaccine: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine for TB disease.
  • Statistics: A total of 1.5 million people died from TB and an estimated 10 million people fell ill with tuberculosis
    (TB) worldwide in 2020.

    • India has the world’s highest tuberculosis (TB) burden, with an estimated 26 lakh people contracting
      the disease and approximately 4 lakh people dying from the disease every year.
Mission Indradhanush

  • Mission Indradhanush is an immunization scheme launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,
    GoI on 25th December, 2014.
  • Depicting seven colours of the rainbow, it aimed to cover all those children by 2020 who are either
    unvaccinated, or are partially vaccinated against seven vaccine preventable diseases which include
    diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, measles and hepatitis B.
  • The mission is technically supported by WHO, UNICEF, Rotary International and other donor partners.

Operation Gear Box 

  • Conducted by: Directorate of Revenue Intelligence(DRI)
  • Purpose: To detect the hidden drugs in the gearboxes
  • The drug syndicate used to remove the gears from old and used gearboxes and plastic packets containing the narcotic substance were placed in them and gearboxes were refitted to avoid detection.
  • These packets were then shipped concealing inside this metal scrap with other metal scraps so that it would go
    unnoticed by the authorities.
    India and Drug Abuse 
  • According to a report by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime(UNODC), India is one of the major hubs of illicit drug trade ranging from age-old cannabis to newer prescription drugs like tramadol, and designer drugs like methamphetamine.
  • India lies in the middle of two major illicit opium production regions in the world, the Golden Crescent in the west and the Golden Triangle in the east which makes it a viable hub of the illicit drug trade.
  • Golden Triangle: It includes the regions of Myanmar, Laos and Thailand and Vietnam.
  • Golden Crescent: It includes Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan and is a principal global site for opium production and distribution.

NCERT applied for Deemed University status

  • National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has applied to the University Grants Commission (UGC) for the “deemed university” status under the de novo category.
  • What is Deemed University?
  • The status of deemed-to-be-university is awarded in accordance with Section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956.
  • An Institution of Higher Education, other than universities, working at a very high standard in a specific area of study, can be declared by the Central Government on the advice of the UGC as an Institution ‘deemed-to-be-university’.
  • Institutions that are ‘deemed-to-be-university’ enjoy the academic status and privileges of a university
    What is De Novo Deemed University?
  • De-Novo Deemed University is an institution that can apply to the UGC for setting up a new institution as deemed to be a University which will undertake study and research in unique and emerging areas of knowledge that are not offered by any existing institution.
    Why does NCERT want the Deemed University status?
  • Currently, the graduate and postgraduate programmes offered by NCERT’s Regional Institute of Education (RIE) are affiliated with local universities.
  • The deemed university status would allow NCERT to offer its own graduate, postgraduate and doctoral degrees and have autonomy in terms of introduction of programmes, course structure, conducting examinations and management among others.
    What is NCERT?
  • NCERT is an autonomous organization set up in 1961 by the Government of India to assist and advise the Central and State Governments on policies and programmes for qualitative improvement in school education
  • The Executive Committee (EC) is the highest decision-making body of NCERT and is chaired by the Education

National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM)

  • The Union Ministry of Health recently released the new National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM). The
    NLEM has been modified after 7 years. The previous list was issued in 2015.
  • The Ministry updates the list every few years in consultation with health experts. The new NLEM (2022) has
    added 34 new medicines and dropped 26 old ones from the previous list (2015).
  • It has included more cancer medicines, newer diabetes drugs, and 4 drugs that are under patent. A total of 384
    medicines feature on NLEM 2022 under 27 therapeutic categories. The primary aim of NLEM is to promote
    rational use of medicines, considering three important aspects: cost, safety, and efficacy.
  • As per the World Health Organisation (WHO), Essential Medicines are those that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population.
  • The National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) is a list released by the Ministry of Health and Family
  • The medicines listed in the NLEM are sold below a price ceiling fixed by the National Pharmaceutical Pricing
    Authority (NPPA).
  • In India, it was framed on the lines of the Essential Medicines List (EML) released by the WHO.

Ramakrishna Mission’s ‘Awakening’ Programme

  • Recently, the Union Minister for Education launched Ramakrishna Mission’s ‘Awakening’ Programme for school students.
  • It is an initiative towards ensuring overall personality development of a child in line with the philosophy of
    National Education Policy (NEP), 2020
  • It is for the students of classes I to V.
  • Ramakrishna Mission, Delhi branch, from 2014 onwards, has been successfully conducting the Awakened Citizen Program (ACP) for middle school students to enable them to build “ATMASHRADDHA” (Self-esteem) and make responsible choices. It helps them to find solutions for all problems of life.
  • There has been a demand from educationists for a similar program for Primary school students.
  • In response to this, ‘Awakening’ has been designed and piloted across 126 schools.

Draft Indian Telecommunications bill 2022 

  • Recently, the Department of Telecommunications (DoT) released the draft Indian Telecommunications 2022 Bill to regulate Internet-based OTT (Over-The-Top) telecom services.
    Key Highlights of the Draft Bill :
  • The draft Bill consolidates three separate acts which currently govern the telecommunication sector — the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act, 1933, and The Telegraph Wires (Unlawful Protection) Act, 1950.
  • Dilution of TRAI Power: The DoT has also proposed to dilute some crucial powers and responsibilities of
    the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) on issuing new licences to service providers.
  • OTT Regulation: The government has included internet-based and OTT communication services such as WhatsApp calls, Facetime, Google Meet etc under telecom services.
    Over-The-Top Platforms (OTT)
  • OTT or Over-the-Top platforms are audio and video hosting and streaming services such as Netflix, Amazon
    Prime Video, Hotstar etc, which started out as content hosting platforms but soon branched out into the
    production and release of short movies, feature films, documentaries and web series themselves.
  • These platforms offer a range of content and use Artificial Intelligence (AI) to suggest users the content they are likely to view based on their past viewership on the platform
  • Most OTT platforms generally offer some content for free and charge a monthly subscription fee for premium
    content which is generally unavailable elsewhere.


  • The Central Bureau of Investigation(CBI) has conducted an operation code-named “Megh Chakra”
  • Operation Megh Chakra is a pan-India drive against the circulation and sharing of Child Sexual Abuse Material
  • The operation is being carried out following the inputs received from Interpol’s Singapore special unit.
  • Note: CBI had launched a similar exercise code-named “Operation Carbon in 2021 in which the suspects in 13
    States and one Union Territory were raided.
    What are the other steps taken by CBI against Child Sexual Abuse?
  • CBI constituted a special unit called Online Child Sexual Abuse and Exploitation Prevention/ Investigation
    (OCSAE) in 2019.
  • Aim: To investigate matters pertaining to online child sexual abuse and exploitation. To collate and investigate
    information received from the embassies and overseas federal probe agencies about organised rackets which are active in online child sexual abuse and exploitation.


  • Developed by: jointly developed by Ministry of Rural Development and Ministry of Panchayati Raj.
  • Aim: To monitor the underground water levels across the country.
  • Key Features of the app: JALDOOT app will be used to capture the water level of selected two-three wells in every village.
    • The water levels in these open wells will be measured twice a year, from May 1 to May 31 during the premonsoon time, and from October 1 to October 31 for post-monsoon levels.
    • To ensure transparency, the officers assigned to measure have been told to upload the geotagged
      photographs through the app each time the measurement is done.
    • The app will work both in online and offline mode to ensure that lack of internet connectivity does not
      come in the way of the exercise.
    • The regular data to be input by the ‘Jaldoots’ would be integrated with the database of the National Water
      Informatics Centre which can be utilized for analysis and help in conservation efforts
  • Significance: The app will facilitate panchayats with robust data which can be further used for better planning of works. The groundwater data could be utilized as a part of the Gram Panchayat Development Plan and MGNREGA planning exercises.

POLITY (Articles or Sections in News)

Gulam Ali : 1st Gurjar Muslim from J&K to be nominated to Rajya Sabha

  • Gulam Ali, a Gurjar Muslim from Jammu and Kashmir, has been nominated to Rajya Sabha by President Droupadi Murmu on the recommendation of the Central government.
  • Note: Article 80(1)(a) read with Article 80(3) of the Constitution of India provides that the President can
    nominate to Rajya Sabha, 12 persons having special knowledge, or practical experience in respect of literature,
    science, art and social service.

Attorney General of India

  • Senior Advocate Mukul Rohatgi has declined the government’s offer to become Attorney General (A-G) for India succeeding K.K. Venugopal who is set to retire on 30 September 2022. Rohtagi cited “no specific reason” for refusing his offer to succeed incumbent KK Venugopal.
  • Note : Mukul Rohatgi also served as the Attorney General for three years from 2014 to 2017.
  • Under Article 76(1), the A-G is appointed by the President from among persons who are “qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court”.
  • Term: Article 76(4) says “the Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall
    receive such remuneration as the President may determine.”
  • Under Article 88, the “Attorney-General of India shall have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, either House, any joint sitting of the Houses, and any committee of Parliament of which he may be named a member”. However, he “shall not by virtue of this article be entitled to vote” in the House.

Article 343(1) 

  • Article 343(1) of the Indian Constitution states that the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagiri Script.

Bilkis Bano Case

  • Why in News : On 15th August 2022, 11 convicts who were serving life sentences for rape and murder in the case, walked out of prison to a heroes’ welcome.
  • Many also pointed out that the release is in contravention of guidelines issued by both the federal government and the Gujarat state government – both say that rape and murder convicts cannot be granted remission.
  • Life terms in these crimes are usually served until death in India
  • The Supreme Court has asked the Gujarat government for its response after taking up petitions filed by opposition politicians and activists.What is the Bilkis Bano case?
  • Gujarat had turned violent after the Sabarmati train was burnt in Godhra on 27 February 2002 when 59 karsevaks were killed in the train.
  • Fearing the outbreak of violence, a then five-month pregnant Bilkis Bano fled from her village with her three-anda-half-year-old daughter and 15 other family members.
  • They were attacked by about 20-30 people whereas Bilkis, her mother, and three other women were raped and
    brutally assaulted.
  • Only Bilkis, a man, and a three-year-old survived the attack.
  • Her case was taken up by the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) and Supreme Court, which ordered an investigation by the CBI.What happened in the case?
  • The accused in the case were arrested in 2004 and the trial was moved out of Gujarat to Maharashtra after Bilkis Bano received death threats.
  • In 2008, the Special CBI Court sentenced 11 accused to life imprisonment on the charges of conspiring to rape a pregnant woman, murder and unlawful assembly under the Indian Penal Code.
  • The court acquitted seven other accused for lack of evidence.
  • The Bombay High Court, in 2017, upheld the conviction and life imprisonment of 11 people in the gang rape case.
  • In 2019, the Supreme Court awarded compensation of Rs 50 lakh to Bilkis — the first such order in a case related to the 2002 riots.Why have the convicts been released now?
  • One of the convicts had approached the Gujarat High Court seeking remission of the sentence under sections 432 and 433 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
  • The high court dismissed his plea while observing that the “appropriate government” to take a decision about his remission is Maharashtra, and not Gujarat.
  • He then filed a plea in the Supreme Court, pleading that he had been in jail for over 15 years without remission as of 1 April 2022.
  • The apex court directed the Gujarat government to look into the issue of remission of his sentence following which the government formed a committee.
  • The committee took a unanimous decision in favour of remission of all the 11 convicts in the case.
    Why is the remission criticized?
  • Against treating crimes as heinous- The remission runs contrary to the spirit of contemporary thinking on treating crimes against women and children as so heinous that the perpetrators should not be considered for remission.
  • No premature release- The Cr.P.C. does permit premature release in the form of remission or commutation in life sentences, but it should be based on a legal and constitutional scheme, and not on a ruler’s whimsy.
  • Political considerations- Any decision on remission should be linked to the convict’s expression of regret and some promise of reform.
  • It would be unjustified if given for political considerations merely because of elapse of the minimum number of
    years they have to serve.
    What are the laws available on remissions?
  • Under Articles 72 and 161 of the Constitution, the President and Governors have the power to pardon, and to
    suspend, remit, or commute a sentence passed by the courts.
  • Since prisons is a state subject, state governments have powers under Section 432 of the CrPC to remit
  • Prisoners are often released on the birth and death anniversaries of prominent leaders and other important

Civil Service (Conduct) Rules of 1964 Vs Freedom of Speech (Article 19)

  • A senior IAS officer from Telangana (Smita Sabharwal) tweeted from her personal account in support of Ms. Bilkis Bano and questioned the Gujarat government’s decision of releasing 11 men convicted on charges of gang-raping during the 2002 Gujarat riots.
  • This has prompted a debate about whether the officer breached the Civil Service (Conduct) Rules of 1964 and
    revived the debate about civil servants’ right to express their personal views on matters of law and governance.Can Civil Servants express their personal views on matters of law and governance?
  • The citizens of this country have the fundamental right of free speech guaranteed by the Constitution, subject to reasonable restrictions.
  • Hence, civil servants also have the right to tweet but disciplinary rules prevent a government servant from
    becoming a member of a political organization or expressing herself freely with regard to anything that has to do with the governance of the country.
  • But in a democracy, the right to criticize the government is a fundamental right and nobody can muzzle that.What are the court’s judgements related to this?
  • Lipika Paul v. The State Of Tripura: The court said that a civil servant (the petitioner) is not devoid of her right
    to free speech, a fundamental right which can be curtailed only by a valid law. However, this is subject to the civil servant not crossing the borders laid down in the Conduct Rules.
  • Kerala High Court Judgement: The court said that one cannot be prevented from expressing his views merely
    because he is an employee. In a democratic society, every institution is governed by democratic norms.
  • What is Rule 9 of the Central Civil Services (Conduct) Rules?
  • Rule 9 says that “No Government servant shall make any statement of fact or opinion, which has the effect of an adverse criticism of any current or recent policy or action of the Central Government or a State Government”.Does Rule 9 violate Article 19 of the Indian Constitution?
  • No, Rule 9 does not violate Article 19. This is because freedom of speech is given in the Constitution, but these are Conduct Rules and they are imposed because there has to be some discipline in an organization for that
    organization to function.

State wise Sedition cases in India

  • As per National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) reports, Assam recorded the most number of Sedition cases in the country in the last eight years.
  • Out of 475 sedition cases registered in the country between 2014 and 2021, Assam accounted for 69 cases
  • After Assam, the most number of such cases were reported from Haryana (42 cases), followed by Jharkhand
    (40), Karnataka (38), Andhra Pradesh (32) and Jammu and Kashmir (29).
  • These six states accounted for 250 cases — more than half the number of total sedition cases recorded in the
    country — in the eight-year period.
  • 76 sedition cases were registered across the country in 2021, a marginal increase from the 73 registered in 2020.
  • States and UTs that did not register even one sedition case in that period were Meghalaya, Mizoram, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, and Puducherry.

Section 437 of the CrPC : Bail for Children and Women

  • Recently, the Supreme Court of India granted interim bail to activist Teesta Setalvad on the ground that she is a
  • The Chief Justice of India also made a reference to the bail provision in Code of Criminal Procedure CrPC that
    says “being a woman is a possible ground for granting bail, even when otherwise it cannot be considered.”What are the Provisions available for Bail for Women?
  • The Code of Criminal Procedure CrPC: Section 437 of the CrPC deals with bail in case of non-bailable
    offences. According to it, person shall not be released on bail if:

    • There is reasonable ground to believe that he has committed an offence punishable with death or life
      imprisonment, or
    • He has been previously convicted for an offence punishable with death, life imprisonment, or for a term of seven years or more, or
    • He has been convicted on two or more occasions on other offences with a term between three and seven
    • However, Section 437 of the CrPC also contains exceptions such as the court may grant bail even in these cases, if such person is under the age of 16 or is a woman or is sick or infirm.

Who is Teesta Setalvad

  • Teesta Setalvad is a rights activist and journalist based in Mumbai who is popularly known for taking up the cause of the 2002 Gujrat riots victims. She serves as the secretary of Citizens for Justice and Peace, an NGO formed in the aftermath of the 2002 riots to provide support to the victims. She was awarded Padma Shri in 2007. She was arrested by the Gujarat Police for allegedly fabricating documents to frame high-ranking officials including then Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi in the 2002 Godhra riots cases.

Conversion therapy for LGBTQIA+ : a “professional misconduct”

  • The National Medical Commission(NMC), the apex regulatory body of medical professionals in India has written to all State Medical Councils banning conversion therapy and calling it a “professional misconduct”.
  • Earlier, Madras High Court had given a landmark verdict on prohibiting conversion therapy.What is Conversion Therapy
  • Conversion or reparative therapy is an intervention aimed at changing the sexual orientation or gender identity of an individual with the use of either psychiatric treatment, drugs, exorcism (Evil Ceremonial Practices) and even violence, with the aim being to make the individual heterosexual (Attraction to Oppositre Sex).
  • It includes efforts to change the core identity of youth whose gender identity is incongruent with their sex anatomy.
  • Often, the therapy is offered by quacks with little expertise in dealing with the issue.
  • According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), the interventions under
    conversion therapy are provided under the false premise that homosexuality and diverse gender identities are
    pathological.Associated Risks
  • Conversion therapy poses the risk of causing or exacerbating mental health conditions, like anxiety, stress and drug use which sometimes even lead to suicide.How can schools, colleges and medical professionals help in this?
  • Schools: Schools and colleges must bring changes in curricula for a better understanding of the community.
    Gender-neutral restrooms should be compulsory in educational institutes and other places.
  • Parents: Parents too need to be sensitized because the first point of misunderstanding and abuse often begins at home, with teenagers being forced to opt for “conversion” therapies.
  • Medical Professionals: Adults opting for sex reassignment surgeries need to get proper guidance like therapy pre and post-operation.What is LGBTQIA+?
  • The LGBTQIA+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual or of any other orientation) are the people who don’t identify with cisgender (sex assigned at birth) heterosexual “ideals”.
  • The ‘plus’ is used to signify all of the gender identities and sexual orientations that letters and words cannot yet
    fully describe.
  • In India, the LGBTQIA+ community also includes a specific social group, a distinct community: the Hijras.
  • They are culturally defined either as “neither men, nor women”, or as men who behave like a woman.
  • At present they are referred to as the Third Gender.
  • Supreme Court, on 6th September 2018, decriminalised section 377[1], which titled homosexual relations as
    “unnatural offences”.

Assam tribals peace agreement

  • A tripartite peace agreement was signed between Centre, Assam Government and eight tribal groups of
    Assam in the presence of Union Home Minister Amit Shah in New Delhi.
  • The agreement was signed to end decade old crisis of tribal groups and tea garden workers in Assam.
  • The tribal groups which have signed the agreement include, Birsa Commando Force, Adivasi People’s Army, All
    Adivasi National Liberation Army, Adivasi Cobra Military of Assam and Santhal Tiger Force.
  • The agreement will prove to be another milestone in the direction of making North East region extremism free
    by 2025.

Maharatna status to Rural Electrification Corporation (REC)

  • Recently, Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) has been accorded the status of a ‘Maharatna’ Central Public
    Sector Enterprise (CPSE).About REC:
  • REC is a Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC), incorporated in 1969, focusing on Power Sector Financing
    and Development across India. It comes under the purview of the Ministry of Power. It has been appointed as a
    Nodal Agency for Government of India’s flagship schemes as following:

    • Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (SAUBHAGAYA)
    • Deen Dayal Upadhaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY)
    • National Electricity Fund (NEF)
  • REC also assists the Ministry of Power in monitoring the Ujjwal Discom Assurance Yojana (UDAY).Criteria to get upgraded from Navratna to Maharatna status :
  • “Maharatna” status is granted to a company which has recorded more than Rs. 5,000 crores of net profit for three consecutive years, an average annual turnover of Rs. 25,000 crore for three years or should have an average annual net worth of Rs. 15,000 crore for three years. It should also have global operations or footprints.
  • A CPSE should also have a Navratna status, be listed on an Indian stock exchange.

Live streaming of Supreme Court proceedings 

  • From September 27 onward, all proceedings of Supreme Court Constitution Benches will be live-streamed, a full court meeting of the top court has decided.
  • Back in the ‘Swapnil Tripathi’ judgment, in September 2018, the Supreme Court had ruled that live telecast of
    court proceedings was part of the right to access justice under Article 21 of the Constitution.
  • Quoting the English legal philosopher Jeremy Bentham, the Supreme Court said that publicity is the very soul of justice.
  • Gujarat High Court was the first high court to livestream court proceedings followed by Karnataka high court.
    Currently, the Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, and Patna High Courts live stream their
    proceedings. Allahabad High Court is considering power doing the same.
  • Top courts globally, for example, the International Criminal Court, the UK Supreme Court, have long allowed
    live-streaming.What are the advantages of live-streaming of constitution bench hearings?
  • It is considered a milestone in India’s democratic journey because
    • Everyone can watch and learn about judicial proceedings, decisions etc. There by increasing transparency
      and greater access to the justice system,
    • Creates more interest in crucial matters that define India’s governance,
    • Create greater accountability for SC judges and lawyers,
    • Live-streaming is a great enabler for litigants who are unable to attend court, and
    • It not just increase legal literacy but potentially enhance the public’s continuous engagement with the
      Constitution and laws

What are the concerns of live-streaming of constitution bench hearings?

  • Ex-CJI had termed live-streaming a “double-edged sword.” This is because
    • Judges might be a frequent target of public ire, or a target of social media trolls,
    • Publicity-savvy lawyers will probably deploy showmanship even more than they do now,
    • Video clips of proceedings from Indian courts that are already there on YouTube and other social media
      platforms with sensational titles and little context are leading to the spread of misinformation among the
      public, as prevalent from the recent past.

Attorney General’s suggestion 

  • However, the Attorney General suggested that the court must retain the to withhold broadcasting, and also not
    permit it in cases involving:
  • Matrimonial matters : Matters involving interests of juveniles or the protection and safety of the private life of the young offenders
  • Matters of National security.What should be done in future
  • If a live stream of the top court’s proceedings is not possible, alternatively video recording of the proceedings
    should be allowed.
  • The agreements with broadcasters should be on a non-commercial basis. No one should profit from the
  • A set of guidelines must be framed to ensure that the video titles and description are not misleading and
    convey accurate information, only.
  • Strict punishment/penalty must be attached with the unauthorised reproduction of live-streaming of videos.
  • With videoconferencing apps allowing almost glitch-free live-streaming, subordinate courts should also be asked to operate in hybrid mode. This will spare witnesses and litigants from personal appearances and minimise adjournments.

Possibilities of giving Schedule tribe status to several communities 

  • Recently, government has approved the inclusion of certain communities in the lists of Scheduled Tribes in
    Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, fulfilling long-pending demands from these states.What is the Process of Inclusion in the ST List?
  • The process to include tribes in the ST list begins with the recommendation from the respective State
    governments, which are then sent to the Tribal Affairs Ministry, which reviews and sends them to the Registrar
    General of India for approval.
  • This is followed by the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes’ approval before the list is sent to the Cabinet for a final decision.What do we Know about the Newly Added Tribe?
  • Hatti Tribe (Himachal Pradesh):
    • The Hattis are a close-knit community who got their name from their tradition of selling homegrown
      vegetables, crops, meat and wool etc. at small markets called ‘haat’ in towns.
    • The community has been making the demand since 1967, when tribal status was accorded to people living
      in the Jaunsar Bawar area of Uttarakhand, which shares a border with Sirmaur district.
    • Their demand for tribal status gained strength because of resolutions passed at various maha Khumblis
      over the years.
  • Narikoravan and Kurivikkaran (Tamil Nadu):
    • Nomadic tribes like the Narikuravas and Kuruvikaras (jackal catchers and bird eaters) pride themselves on their traditional occupations of hunting and gathering.
  • Binjhia (Chhattisgarh):
    • The Binjhia in Chhattisgarh were listed as ST in Jharkhand and Odisha but not in Chhattisgarh.
    • The Binjhia are non-vegetarians and agriculture is the mainstay of their economy. They do not eat beef and pork but consume alcoholic drinks including the handia (rice beer).
  • Gond Community (Uttar Pradesh):
    • The Cabinet approved a proposal to bring the Gond community residing in 13 districts of Uttar Pradesh,
      under the ST list from the Scheduled Caste list.
    • This includes the five subcategories of the Gond community (Dhuria, Nayak, Ojha, Pathari, and Rajgond).
  • ‘Betta-Kuruba’ (Karnataka):
    • The ST status granted to the Betta-Kuruba community as a synonym of Kadu Kuruba of Karnataka.
    • Betta-Kuruba community has been demanding to include in the ST category for the last 30 years.

What will be the Benefits in the Inclusion in the ST List?

  • The move will enable members of the communities newly listed in the revised list of Scheduled Tribes to derive
    benefits meant for STs under the existing schemes of the government.
  • Some of the major benefits include post-matric scholarship, overseas scholarship and the national fellowship,
    besides education, concessional loans from the National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation, and hostels for students.
  • In addition, they will also be entitled to benefits of reservation in services and admission to educational institutions as per the government policy.

Abortion Rights for Unmarried/Single Women 

  • Recently, the Supreme Court has allowed all women in the country, regardless of marital status, can undergo an abortion up to 24 weeks into pregnancy to access safe and legal abortion care.Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 and Amendment Act of 2021
    Role in Women Empowerment
  • Access to medical facilities: It is estimated that 15.6 million abortions take place in India every year and 10 women lose their lives to unsafe abortions every day. Safe abortion is matter of survival for women in India.
  • Preventing ‘undue burden’ on women: As noted by the US Supreme Court, unwanted pregnancies pose an undue mental, economic and social burden on the woman. Unwanted pregnancies in girls affect their education and reduce opportunities for them.
  • Women’s right over her body: Legalising abortion gives woman the power to decide for herself instead of State
    making decisions for her.
  • Provision of consent in the Act: It ensures that woman would take an informed decision and any termination of
    pregnancy cannot be done without her explicit consent.
  • Equality of treatment: Unmarried women too are provided with the same right as married women in case of
    abortion. Supreme Court recently, permitted an unmarried woman to terminate her pregnancy of beyond 20 weeks diluting any difference between married and unmarried women in the Act.
  • The Act allows abortion in case of pregnancy born out of rape or sexual assault. This protects survivors of sexual assault against bearing the cost of unwanted pregnancy.
  • The Act also allows for termination of pregnancy in case of change of marital status: This provision recognises that raising a child is the responsibility of both parents and a mother should not bear the whole responsibility alone. Supreme Court has now allowed unmarried women to terminate pregnancy if their partners back out of the relationship.
  • The Act has replaced the term ‘husband, with ‘partner’ recognising which is in sync with the modern forms of
    relationships and families.
  • Therefore, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act seeks to empower women by enabling them to exercise bodily autonomy, economic freedom and their reproductive rights

Ban on PFI under UAPA 1967

  • The Government of India has banned the Popular Front of India and its affiliates for five years under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act 1967 for having terror links.What is the Popular Front of India?
  • The PFI was created in 2007 through the merger of three Muslim organisations in southern India namely the
    National Democratic Front in Kerala, the Karnataka Forum for Dignity, and the Manitha Neethi Pasarai in Tamil Nadu.
  • The formation of the PFI was formally announced at a rally in Bengaluru during what was called the “Empower
    India Conference” on 16th February, 2007.What did the Centre Banned PFI?
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs declared the PFI an “unlawful association” along with its associates which includes :
    • Rehab India Foundation (RIF), Campus Front of India (CFI), All India Imams Council (AIIC), National
      Confederation of Human Rights Organisation (NCHRO), National Women’s Front, Junior Front,
      Empower India Foundation and Rehab Foundation, Kerala”.

Reason for the Ban : 

  • According to the government, some of the PFI’s founding members are leaders of the Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI) and the PFI also has linkages with Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), both of which are proscribed organisations.
  • There had been a number of instances of international linkages of PFI with Global Terrorist Groups like Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).


India overtakes UK as 5th largest economy

  • According to the latest calculations by Bloomberg, India has become the world’s fifth-largest economy after it
    overtook the United Kingdom in end-March 2022.
  • India achieved this feat on 75th year of freedom.
  • This news came at a time when PM Modi, during his 2022 Independence Day speech, had urged the countrymen to resolve to become a developed country by 2047.
  • The calculation is based in US dollars, and India surpassed UK in the final three months (last quarter) of 2021 to become the fifth-biggest economy.
  • Now, the United States, China, Japan, and Germany are the only nations with economies larger than India’s.
  • India is set to become the third largest by 2029.
  • India could surpass Germany in 2027 and most likely Japan by 2029 at the current rate of growth.
  • Note : The Indian economy is forecast to grow more than 7% this year.Comparison between India and UK
  • Population : This is one of the most fundamental differences between the two countries. As of 2022, India has a
    population of 1.41 billion while the UK’s population is 68.5 million. In other words, India’s population is 20 times that of the UK’s.
  • GDP per capita : Since there is such a stark difference between the population of the two countries, GDP per capital of India is much lower.
  • Poverty levels : At the start of the 19th century, the UK’s share in extreme poverty was considerably higher than
    India’s. However, as things stand today, the relative positions have reversed even though India has made giant
    strides in curbing poverty.
  • Human Development Index : On this front, experts believe India might still take a decade to be where the UK was in 1980.
    • Performance of UK in HDI 2019 – 0.932 (score), very high category (HDI tier)
    • India’s performance in HDI 2019 – 0.645 (score), medium category (HDI tier).
  • Universal Healthcare Coverage : While faster economic growth and the government’s policy focus on healthcare schemes since 2005 have made a distinct improvement for India, there is still a long way to go.

US Startup SETU

  • The Minister of Commerce and Industry has launched the US Startup SETU – Supporting Entrepreneurs in
    Transformation and Upskilling programme in the Bay Area of San Francisco.What is SETU?
  • SETU initiative would connect start-ups in India to US-based investors and start-up ecosystem leaders with
    mentorship and assistance in various areas including funding, market access and commercialization.
  • Aim: To break geographical barriers between mentors based in the US that are willing to invest in entrepreneurship and sunrise startups in India.How will they connect to Indian entrepreneurs?
  • All interactions can take place through the mentorship portal under the Startup India initiative MAARGWhat is MAARG? 
  • MAARG or the Mentorship, Advisory, Assistance, Resilience, and Growth program is a mentorship portal
    under the Startup India initiative. The portal has been developed with the idea of being accessible from every
    corner of the country to connect with a mentor.
  • The core functions of MAARG are to improve ease of access, use Artificial Intelligence for Matchmaking,
    schedule meetings virtually, host masterclasses, provide a custom dashboard for relevant information, among

Ban on Export of Rice

  • Recently, India has banned exports of broken rice to boost domestic supplies amid a fall in area under the paddy crop in the current Kharif season.Is this a complete ban on export of Rice from India ?
  • No, there are four categories of rice exports.
  • Out of these, exports in the case of two – basmati rice and parboiled non-basmati rice –are still freely allowed.
  • The curbs are only for the other two: raw (white) and broken non-basmati rice. Out of these two, broken non
    basmati rice is completely banned however a duty of 20% duty has been imposed on the exports of raw (white) or non-parboiled non-basmati rice rice.Impact on country’s overall rice exports 
  • The curbs announced will affect just under half of India’s rice exports in terms of quantity and over
    a third by value.Reasons for these restrictions 
  • Possibility of decline in the level of rice production
    • There is a possibility of India’s rice production declining significantly because of deficient monsoon
      rainfall in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and Gangetic West Bengal.
    • During the current kharif cropping season from June 1 to September 9, farmers have planted 2.1 million
      hectares (mh) less area under rice compared to the same period last year.
    • The rice production would further decline if yields in Punjab and Haryana turn out lower due to a new
      virus that has caused dwarfing of paddy plants in many fields there.
    • Inflation pressure: The lower the supply of a commodity, the higher would be the price of a product, which results in inflationary pressures. The adequacy of rice stocks in the country would ensure that markets do not experience excess demand and thus trigger an abrupt price rise.
  • Paucity in Domestic Market:
    • Broken rice is also not available either for poultry feed or for ethanol production
  • Fear of depletion in public rice stocks
    • Public wheat stocks on August 1, at 26.65 mt, were the lowest in 14 years for this date.
    • While the same for rice, at 40.99 mt, was quite comfortable, the government is worried about
      their depletion in the event of a sub-par kharif harvest.
    • This is more so, given the political pressure to continue the free-foodgrains scheme (Pradhan Mantri
      Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana) beyond September.
    • With very little wheat in government godowns, it is rice that is sustaining the public distribution system

What are the likely effects of this ban globally?

  • • India accounted for 41% of the total rice exports in the world in 2021 larger than the next four exporters (Thailand, Vietnam, Pakistan and United States) combined.
  • In descending order, China, Senegal, Vietnam, Djibouti and Indonesia are the biggest importers of India’s broken rice. Hence, these countries would be impacted by the ban.
  • However, Thailand, Vietnam and Pakistan would gain if we lose this market. Once lost, regaining the market would be a task.Parboiled and Broken Rice
  • Paddy typically has 20-21% husk (the inedible covering of the grain) and 10-11% bran (the brown outer layer of
    the edible kernel).
  • What remains after removal of the husk and bran is the white raw rice that constitutes 68-69% of paddy.
  • Parboiling is a process where the paddy is soaked in water, steamed and dried while retaining its outer husk.
  • It results in the rice becoming harder with less breakage on milling.
  • The parboiled rice exported from India contains 5-15% broken grains.
  • In raw rice, the brokens are normally up to 25%.
  • It is the rice having 100% brokens whose exports have been prohibited.Significance of Broken Rice?
  • It is often used in the manufacture of feed for very young animals and for pets. Further, it is used for all types of livestock and is particularly suitable due to its rich caloric value and low fibre content.
  • It is also used in the brewing industry, where it is mixed with barley and the production of arak (aniseed alcoholic drink, distilled, colourless drink).
  • It is a raw material for rice flour, used in baby food, breakfast cereals, rice wine, rice liqueur, sake, and
    prepackaged and canned foods.

The fall in natural rubber prices in India 

  • After a moderate post-pandemic revival, the price of Natural Rubber(NR) has crashed to a 16-month low of ₹150 per kg in the Indian market.
  • India is currently the world’s fifth largest producer of natural rubber. It is also the second biggest consumer of
    natural rubber globally.
  • About 40% of India’s total natural rubber consumption is currently met through imports.
  • Top Rubber Producing States: Kerala > Tamil Nadu > Karnataka.
  • The auto-tyre manufacturing sector accounted for 73.1% of the total quantity of natural rubber consumption.Reason of price fall 
  • The current fall in prices is attributed primarily to weak Chinese demand and the European energy crisis, along
    with high inflation and an import glut, among other things.
  • How does the fall in Natural Rubber prices affect growers?
  • The fall in Natural Rubber prices has mostly impacted the small and medium-scale growers and has left them
    staring at an uncertain future, forcing some to stop production for the time being.
  • This impact is mostly seen in Kerala which accounts for nearly 75% of the total Natural Rubber production.Rubber Board of India
  • Rubber Board is an organization constituted under the Rubber (Production and Marketing) Act, 1947 and working under the aegis of the Ministry of Commerce & Industry. It is headquartered in Kottayam, Kerala.Natural Rubber:
  • Commercial Plantation Crop: Rubber is made from the latex of a tree called Hevea Brasiliensis.
  • Rubber is largely perceived as a strategic industrial raw material and accorded special status globally for defence, national security and industrial development.
  • Conditions for Growth: It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical and subtropical areas.
    • Temperature: Above 25°C with moist and humid climate.
    • Rainfall: More than 200 cm.
    • Soil Type: Rich well drained alluvial soil

Prompt Corrective Action Framework

  • Recently, The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has removed the Central Bank of India (CBI) from its Prompt
    Corrective Action Framework (PCAF) after it showed improvement in various financial ratios, including minimum regulatory capital and Net Non-Performing Assets (NNPAs).
  • The RBI had imposed the PCA norms on CBI in June 2017 due to its high net NPA and Negative Return of Assets (RoA).
  • PCAF : PCA is a framework under which banks with weak financial metrics are put under watch by the RBI. The RBI introduced the PCA framework in 2002 as a structured early-intervention mechanism for banks that
    become undercapitalised due to poor asset quality, or vulnerable due to loss of profitability.

Banking System Liquidity 

  • For the first time Liquidity in the banking system has moved into deficit mode after remaining in surplus mode for almost 40 months for the first time since May 2019.
  • Liquidity in the banking system refers to readily available cash that banks need to meet short-term business and financial needs.
  • On a given day, if the banking system is a net borrower from the RBI under Liquidity Adjustment Facility
    (LAF), the system liquidity can be said to be in deficit and if the banking system is a net lender to the RBI, the
    system liquidity can be said to be in surplus.
  • The LAF refers to the RBI’s operations through which it injects or absorbs liquidity into or from the banking
    system.What has triggered this deficit?
  • Multiple factors are at work here, including an increase in bank credit, advance tax payments by corporations and incremental deposit growth that is not keeping pace with credit demand.
  • In addition, the RBI is constantly intervening to keep the rupee from falling against the US dollarImpact on consumers:
  • Banking system liquidity being in deficit means, banks don’t have sufficient funds for the credit demands coming in from the customers.
  • A tight liquidity condition could cause a rise in the yields on government securities, which would then lead to an increase in interest rates for consumers.


  • Recently, the Union Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Minister inaugurated the 13th Federation of India Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) Global Skills Summit 2022.
  • Theme: Education to Employability – Making It HappenAbout FICCI
  • It’s a non-government, not-for-profit organisation,
  • Established in 1927, it is the largest and oldest apex business organisation in India.
  • It provides a platform for networking and consensus building within and across sectors and is the first port of call for Indian industry, policymakers and the international business community.

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